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Empirical damage and liquefaction fragility curves from 2012 Emilia earthquake data

Di Ludovico, Marco; Chiaradonna, Anna; Bilotta, Emilio; Flora, Alessandro; Prota, Andrea


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    <subfield code="a">Assessment and mitigation of liquefaction potential across Europe: a holistic approach to protect structures / infrastructures for improved resilience to earthquake-induced liquefaction disasters</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;The study focuses on the effects of liquefaction on structures taken from data on about 1,000 private residential masonry buildings located in several municipalities struck by the 2012 Emilia earthquake.&amp;nbsp;Survey data were collected by teams of experts coordinated by the Italian Department of Civil Protection in the immediate post-earthquake emergency phase. They included information on&lt;br&gt;
&amp;nbsp;building characteristics and the level and extent of the damage to structural and non-structural&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;components. Furthermore, according to data related to the reconstruction process, information on the&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;liquefaction-induced type and extent of the damage was also collected. Through a comparative&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;analysis of the empirical damage, it was found that liquefaction strongly affected the buildings,&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;confirming its relevance in the damage scenario under specific subsoil conditions. Based on this&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;evidence, the paper proposes a correlation between structural damage and liquefaction when it comes&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;to deriving proper preliminary empirical fragility curves. A suitable parameter to define liquefaction&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;effects at ground level is introduced and correlated to damage grades defined according to the&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;European Macroseismic Scale: EMS-98.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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