Journal article Open Access

Hydrostatic pressure-generated reactive oxygen species induce osteoarthritic conditions in cartilage pellet cultures

Rieder, Bernhard; Weihs, Anna; Weidinger, Adelheid; Szwarc, Dorota; Nürnberger, Sylvia; Redl, Heinz; Rünzler, Dominik; Huber-Gries, Carina; Teuschl, Andreas


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    <subfield code="u">University of Applied Sciences Technikum Vienna</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">Hydrostatic pressure-generated reactive oxygen species induce osteoarthritic conditions in cartilage pellet cultures</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common causes of disability and represents a major socioeconomic&amp;nbsp;burden. Despite intensive&amp;nbsp; research, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation&amp;nbsp;and progression of OA remain inconclusive. In recent years&amp;nbsp; experimental findings revealed elevated&amp;nbsp;levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a major factor contributing to the onset and&amp;nbsp; progression&amp;nbsp;of OA. Hence, we designed a hydrostatic pressure bioreactor system that is capable of stimulating&amp;nbsp;cartilage cell cultures&amp;nbsp; with elevated ROS levels. Increased ROS levels in the media did not only lead to&amp;nbsp;an inhibition of glycosaminoglycans and&amp;nbsp; collagen II formation but also to a reduction of already formed&amp;nbsp;glycosaminoglycans and collagen II in chondrogenic mesenchymal&amp;nbsp; stem cell pellet cultures. These&amp;nbsp;effects were associated with the elevated activity of matrix metalloproteinases as well as the&amp;nbsp; increased&amp;nbsp;expression of several inflammatory cytokines. ROS activated different signaling pathways including&amp;nbsp;PI3K/Akt and&amp;nbsp; MAPK/ERK which are known to be involved in OA initiation and progression. Utilizing&amp;nbsp;the presented bioreactor system, an OA in&amp;nbsp; vitro model based on the generation of ROS was developed&amp;nbsp;that enables the further investigation of ROS effects on cartilage&amp;nbsp; degradation but can also be used as a&amp;nbsp;versatile tool for anti-oxidative drug testing.&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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