Journal article Open Access

Development and Usability Test of an Innovative Low-Cost Rehabilitation Game for the Upper Extremities of Neurological Patients

Riess, Bernhard; David, Veronika; Scherer, Matthias; Kotzian, Stefan; Forjan, Mathias


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    "description": "<p>In recent years, virtual reality (VR) became more and&nbsp;more important in rehabilitation of upper extremities&nbsp;after stroke or other&nbsp;neurological diseases. Commercial&nbsp;gaming consoles, like the Microsoft Kinect, have been&nbsp;rapidly adopted in clinical settings.&nbsp; This paper presents&nbsp;the development of a rehabilitation game for the upper&nbsp;extremities with the Microsoft Kinect v2 sensor by&nbsp;simulating everyday situations. By using the Microsoft&nbsp;Kinect v2 sensor, the positions of the patients&rsquo; hands are&nbsp;tracked, which are further processed to emulate the&nbsp;movement of virtual hands in a virtual environment. A&nbsp;modified System Usability Scale (mSUS) was used to&nbsp;evaluate the usability of the rehabilitation game&nbsp;developed. Eleven stroke patients took part in a&nbsp;preliminary usability&nbsp; study where they had to complete&nbsp;the exercises of the presented rehabilitation game twice.&nbsp;The mSUS were filled by each patient and the&nbsp;standardized System Usability Scale by the supervising&nbsp;therapists. The rehabilitation game is implemented with&nbsp;two different exercises, where one is a pure training of&nbsp;the motoric functions where the task is to catch books&nbsp;falling out of a bookshelf. In&nbsp; contrast, the second&nbsp;exercise additionally trains the cognitive function of the&nbsp;patient as objects in a kitchen need to be moved and&nbsp;categorized by their names. The mean values of the&nbsp;mSUS filled out by the patients and SUS filled out by the&nbsp;therapists were 8.4 and 91.0, respectively. The results of&nbsp;the usability test show satisfying outcomes, as a&nbsp;SUS-score &gt;68 indicates a good usability. These findings&nbsp;are confirmed by the patients&rsquo; feedback as they were&nbsp;very enthusiastic about this virtual rehabilitation&nbsp;scenario. To further evaluate the system developed, a&nbsp;usability study with 30 participants will be conducted.&nbsp;</p>", 
    "language": "eng", 
    "title": "Development and Usability Test of an Innovative Low-Cost Rehabilitation Game for the Upper Extremities of Neurological Patients", 
    "license": {
      "id": "CC-BY-4.0"
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    "journal": {
      "volume": "7", 
      "issue": "4", 
      "pages": "34-39", 
      "title": "Functional Neurology, Rehabilitation, and Ergonomics"
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    "keywords": [
      "Virtual Reality", 
      "Rehabilitation of Upper Extremities", 
      "Neurological Diseases", 
      "Microsoft Kinect", 
      "System Usability Scale", 
      "Low-cost"
    ], 
    "publication_date": "2017-07-11", 
    "creators": [
      {
        "affiliation": "University of Applied Sciences Technikum Vienna", 
        "name": "Riess, Bernhard"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "University of Applied Sciences Technikum Vienna", 
        "name": "David, Veronika"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "University of Applied Sciences Technikum Vienna", 
        "name": "Scherer, Matthias"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "University of Applied Sciences Technikum Vienna", 
        "name": "Kotzian, Stefan"
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      {
        "affiliation": "University of Applied Sciences Technikum Vienna", 
        "name": "Forjan, Mathias"
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