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Border Management and Migration Controls – Germany Report

Hänsel,, Valeria; Hess, Sabine; Kasparek, Bernd

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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;This country report analyses the border management and migration control policies of the Federal&amp;nbsp;Republic of Germany in relation to the policies and regulations of the European Union. It outlines&amp;nbsp;Germany&amp;rsquo;s hegemonic position within the European Union regarding migration management and&amp;nbsp;border policies. We argue that the securitized perspective on migration policies &amp;ndash; including the&amp;nbsp;externalization strategy prevalent in the EU &amp;ndash; is to a substantial degree rooted in discourses, policies,&amp;nbsp;legislation and practices of Germany closely interwoven with European policies.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;The hegemonic position of the Federal Republic of Germany has expressed itself in both the political&amp;nbsp;developments since 2011 outlined in the report, and the increasingly restrictive German legislation&amp;nbsp;on migration control. In several cases, German legislation has been transmitted to the European&amp;nbsp;level.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;Furthermore, there is a dominant narrative by federal ministries conceptualizing border security as&amp;nbsp;an essential part of an &amp;ldquo;integrated migration management approach&amp;rdquo;. This perception has been&amp;nbsp;strongly driven by the securitization of migration as response to migration movements to Europe,&amp;nbsp;especially in the course of 2015 which were collectively perceived as a &amp;ldquo;refugee crisis&amp;rdquo;. The notion&amp;nbsp;of &amp;ldquo;integrated migration management&amp;rdquo; expresses a perceived need to regulate migration through the&amp;nbsp;close cooperation of actors on different levels and in different policy fields (economic cooperation&amp;nbsp;and development, internal security, integration, foreign policy, police cooperation with other national&amp;nbsp;and EU-external border officers, data exchange, as well as return and reintegration policies). In&amp;nbsp;addition, exceptional measures such as the reintroduction of national border controls were&amp;nbsp;implemented.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;However, the report stresses that Germany&amp;rsquo;s border management cannot be reduced to policies at&amp;nbsp;its national borders. What is more relevant is the vast number of externalization measures, both&amp;nbsp;within and beyond the European Union. Through bilateral and multilateral police agreements as well&amp;nbsp;as migration/readmission agreements with Member States, countries of origin and transit countries,&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;Germany has significantly advanced the European Union&amp;rsquo;s externalization of migration&amp;nbsp;management. The German police are also actively involved with FRONTEX, the European Border&amp;nbsp;and Coast Guard Agency.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;In addition, the report outlines Germany&amp;rsquo;s restrictive border policies in the fields of pre-entry and&amp;nbsp;internal controls (such as visa policies, carrier sanctions and veil searches), as well as in the field of&amp;nbsp;detention and return. We analyse how the national policies to enforce speedy procedures and swift&amp;nbsp;returns leads to a rise of encampment, detention and readmissions; the effects of these policies can&amp;nbsp;be seen in EU policies that also endanger legal safeguards.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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