Journal article Open Access

Morphology and biology of the flower-visiting water scavenger beetle genus Rygmodus (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)

Yusuke Minoshima; Matthias Seidel; Jamie R. Wood; Richard A. B. Leschen; Nicole L. Gunter; Martin Fikáček


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{
  "inLanguage": {
    "alternateName": "eng", 
    "@type": "Language", 
    "name": "English"
  }, 
  "description": "<p>Hydrophilidae (water scavenger beetles) is well known as an aquatic beetle family;&nbsp;<br>\nhowever, it contains ca. 1,000 secondarily terrestrial species derived from aquatic&nbsp;<br>\nancestors. The New Zealand endemic genus Rygmodus White is a member of the&nbsp;<br>\nhydrophilid subfamily Cylominae, which is the early-diverging taxon of the largest&nbsp;<br>\nterrestrial lineage (Cylominae + Sphaeridiinae) within the Hydrophilidae. In this paper&nbsp;<br>\nwe demonstrate that Rygmodus beetles are pollen-feeding flower visitors as adults, but<br>\naquatic predators as larvae. Based on analyses of gut contents and a summary of&nbsp;<br>\ncollecting records reported on museum specimen labels, adult Rygmodus beetles are&nbsp;<br>\ngeneralists feeding on pollen of at least 13 plant families. Rygmodus adult mouthparts&nbsp;<br>\ndiffer from those of other (saprophagous) hydrophilid beetles in having the simple&nbsp;<br>\nscoop-like apex and mola with roughly denticulate surface, resembling the morphology&nbsp;<br>\nfound in pollen-feeding staphylinid beetles. Larvae were found along the sides of&nbsp;<br>\nstreams, under stones and in algal mats and water-soaked moss; one collected larval<br>\nspecimens was identified using DNA barcoding of two molecular markers,<br>\nmitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) and nuclear histone 3 (H3). Larvae of two&nbsp;<br>\nspecies, Rygmodus modestus and Rygmodus sp., are described in detail and illustrated;&nbsp;<br>\nthey closely resemble ambush-type predatory larvae of the hydrophilid tribe&nbsp;<br>\nHydrophilini in the head morphology. Rygmodus is the only known hydrophilid beetle&nbsp;<br>\nwith adults and larvae inhabiting different environments.</p>", 
  "license": "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode", 
  "creator": [
    {
      "affiliation": "Natural History Division, Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History and Human History,  Kitakyushu-shi, Japan", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Yusuke Minoshima"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in  Prague, Praha, Czech Republic", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Matthias Seidel"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Long-term Ecology Lab, Manaaki Whenua, Lincoln, New Zealand", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Jamie R. Wood"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "New  Zealand Arthropod Collection, Manaaki Whenua, Auckland, New Zealand", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Richard A. B. Leschen"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Department  of Invertebrate Zoology, Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, U.S.A.", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Nicole L. Gunter"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Department of Entomology, National Museum, Praha,  Czech Republic", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Martin Fik\u00e1\u010dek"
    }
  ], 
  "headline": "Morphology and biology of the flower-visiting water scavenger beetle genus  Rygmodus (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)", 
  "image": "https://zenodo.org/static/img/logos/zenodo-gradient-round.svg", 
  "datePublished": "2019-06-20", 
  "url": "https://zenodo.org/record/3251092", 
  "keywords": [
    "Cylominae", 
    "ecological divergence", 
    "gut contents", 
    "immature stages", 
    "larval morphology", 
    "mouthparts", 
    "pollen feeding"
  ], 
  "@context": "https://schema.org/", 
  "identifier": "https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3251092", 
  "@id": "https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3251092", 
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
  "name": "Morphology and biology of the flower-visiting water scavenger beetle genus  Rygmodus (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)"
}
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