Dataset Open Access

Orthophotos and DSMs derived from RPAS flights over the nature reserve Zwin in Flanders, Belgium

Vanden Borre, Jeroen; Klaas Pauly; Van Hoey, Stijn; De Reu, Jeroen; Desmet, Peter


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  "inLanguage": {
    "alternateName": "eng", 
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  "description": "<p><strong>Study area</strong></p>\n\n<p>The Zwin is a nature reserve situated along the Belgian North Sea coast, northeast of Knokke, in the province of West-Flanders, Flanders, Belgium. The area is managed by the Flemish Agency for Nature and Forest and consists of a tidal marsh, coastal dunes with <em>Ammophila arenaria</em>, dune grasslands and/or shrub (<em>Hippophae rhamnoides</em>, <em>Salix repens</em>), and a transitional grassland zone that stretches from the inner edge of the coastal dunes into the polders.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Data collection</strong></p>\n\n<p>Data were collected by the <a href=\"http://www.inbo.be/en\">Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO)</a> with a fixed wing drone Gatewing X100 in 2014 and 2015 (15 flights). RGB data were acquired using an off-the-shelf Ricoh GR Digital IV camera, with the following image bands: 1: red, 2: green, 3: blue, 4: alpha channel. CIR (color-infrared) data were acquired using a NIR-enabled Ricoh GR Digital IV camera, with the following info bands: 1: NIR, 2: red, 3: green, 4: alpha channel.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Data processing</strong></p>\n\n<p>The raw data were processed to Digital Surface Models and orthophotos by the <a href=\"https://vito.be/en\">Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO)</a> in 2017. Images with coarse GPS coordinates were imported and processed in Agisoft PhotoScan Pro 1.4.x, a structure-from-motion (SfM) based photogrammetry software program. After extraction and matching of tie points, a bundle adjustment leads to a sparse point cloud and a refined set of camera position and orientation values. Ground control points (either artificially installed markers on the terrain, or other photo-identifiable points, measured on the ground with RTK GNSS) were used to further refine the camera calibration and obtain a pixel-level georeferencing accuracy. From there, a point cloud densification and classification into ground and non-ground points was performed, leading to a rasterized digital surface model (DSM) and digital terrain model (DTM). Finally, a true orthomosaic was projected onto the DTM.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Coordinate reference system</strong></p>\n\n<p>All geospatial data have the coordinate reference system <code>EPSG:31370 - Belgian Lambert 72</code>.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Files</strong></p>\n\n<ul>\n\t<li><strong>Raw flight data</strong>: images and logs collected by the drone during flight. These files are zipped per flight, with the date (<code>yyyymmdd</code>) and flight number (<code>x</code>) indicated in the file name (<code>flight_yyyymmdd_Zwin_x.zip</code>).</li>\n\t<li><strong>Processed data</strong>: Digital Surface Models (<code>filename_DSM.tif</code>) and orthophotos (<code>filename_Ortho.tif</code>) stitched together from the raw data. The included flights are indicated in the file name (e.g. 6 flights for <code>20150709_Zwin_1-3_20150710_Zwin_1-3_DSM.tif</code>).</li>\n\t<li><strong>Ground control points</strong>: fixed ground control points (GCP) were placed on 2014-04-07, coordinates of which are available in <code>GCP_20140407_Zwin_fixed.tsv</code>. These GCPs are visible (but fading over time) in all orthophotos except <code>20151012_Zwin_1-4_Ortho.tif</code> which covers a different area. Additional temporary GCPs were placed on 2014-04-07, 2014-04-10 and 2015-07-09 (visible in orthophotos of those dates), coordinates of which are available in the respective <code>GCP_yyyymmdd_Zwin.tsv</code> file.</li>\n</ul>\n\n<p><strong>Cloud Optimized GeoTIFF</strong></p>\n\n<p>The most efficient way to explore the processed data is by loading the <a href=\"https://www.cogeo.org/\">Cloud Optimized GeoTIFFs</a> we created for each processed file. Copy one of the file URLs below and follow e.g. the <a href=\"https://www.cogeo.org/qgis-tutorial.html\">QGIS tutorial</a> to load this type of file.</p>\n\n<ul>\n\t<li><code>http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lw-remote-sensing/cogeo/20140407_Zwin_1-2_DSM.tif</code></li>\n\t<li><code>http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lw-remote-sensing/cogeo/20140407_Zwin_1-2_Ortho.tif</code>&nbsp;CIR</li>\n\t<li><code>http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lw-remote-sensing/cogeo/20140410_Zwin_1-3_DSM.tif</code></li>\n\t<li><code>http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lw-remote-sensing/cogeo/20140410_Zwin_1-3_Ortho.tif</code>&nbsp;CIR</li>\n\t<li><code>http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lw-remote-sensing/cogeo/20150709_Zwin_1-3_20150710_Zwin_1-3_DSM.tif</code></li>\n\t<li><code>http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lw-remote-sensing/cogeo/20150709_Zwin_1-3_20150710_Zwin_1-3_Ortho.tif</code> RGB</li>\n\t<li><code>http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lw-remote-sensing/cogeo/20151012_Zwin_1-4_DSM.tif</code></li>\n\t<li><code>http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lw-remote-sensing/cogeo/20151012_Zwin_1-4_Ortho.tif</code> RGB</li>\n</ul>\n\n<p>See <a href=\"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lw-remote-sensing/index.html\">this page</a> for an overview of public INBO RPAS data.</p>", 
  "license": "http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/legalcode", 
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    {
      "affiliation": "Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO)", 
      "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0153-7243", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Vanden Borre, Jeroen"
    }, 
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      "affiliation": "Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO)", 
      "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2183-1917", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Klaas Pauly"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO)", 
      "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6413-3185", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Van Hoey, Stijn"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO)", 
      "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9454-0021", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "De Reu, Jeroen"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO)", 
      "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8442-8025", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Desmet, Peter"
    }
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  "url": "https://zenodo.org/record/3096021", 
  "datePublished": "2019-06-17", 
  "keywords": [
    "orthophoto", 
    "digital surface model", 
    "drone", 
    "RPAS", 
    "remote sensing", 
    "nature management", 
    "LifeWatch"
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