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Orthophotos and DSMs derived from RPAS flights over the nature reserve Zwin in Flanders, Belgium

Vanden Borre, Jeroen; Klaas Pauly; Van Hoey, Stijn; De Reu, Jeroen; Desmet, Peter


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        <foaf:name>Desmet, Peter</foaf:name>
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    <dct:title>Orthophotos and DSMs derived from RPAS flights over the nature reserve Zwin in Flanders, Belgium</dct:title>
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    <dct:issued rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#gYear">2019</dct:issued>
    <dcat:keyword>orthophoto</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>digital surface model</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>drone</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>RPAS</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>remote sensing</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>nature management</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>LifeWatch</dcat:keyword>
    <dct:issued rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#date">2019-06-17</dct:issued>
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    <dct:description>&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Study area&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;The Zwin is a nature reserve situated along the Belgian North Sea coast, northeast of Knokke, in the province of West-Flanders, Flanders, Belgium. The area is managed by the Flemish Agency for Nature and Forest and consists of a tidal marsh, coastal dunes with &lt;em&gt;Ammophila arenaria&lt;/em&gt;, dune grasslands and/or shrub (&lt;em&gt;Hippophae rhamnoides&lt;/em&gt;, &lt;em&gt;Salix repens&lt;/em&gt;), and a transitional grassland zone that stretches from the inner edge of the coastal dunes into the polders.&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Data collection&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Data were collected by the &lt;a href="http://www.inbo.be/en"&gt;Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO)&lt;/a&gt; with a fixed wing drone Gatewing X100 in 2014 and 2015 (15 flights). RGB data were acquired using an off-the-shelf Ricoh GR Digital IV camera, with the following image bands: 1: red, 2: green, 3: blue, 4: alpha channel. CIR (color-infrared) data were acquired using a NIR-enabled Ricoh GR Digital IV camera, with the following info bands: 1: NIR, 2: red, 3: green, 4: alpha channel.&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Data processing&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;The raw data were processed to Digital Surface Models and orthophotos by the &lt;a href="https://vito.be/en"&gt;Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO)&lt;/a&gt; in 2017. Images with coarse GPS coordinates were imported and processed in Agisoft PhotoScan Pro 1.4.x, a structure-from-motion (SfM) based photogrammetry software program. After extraction and matching of tie points, a bundle adjustment leads to a sparse point cloud and a refined set of camera position and orientation values. Ground control points (either artificially installed markers on the terrain, or other photo-identifiable points, measured on the ground with RTK GNSS) were used to further refine the camera calibration and obtain a pixel-level georeferencing accuracy. From there, a point cloud densification and classification into ground and non-ground points was performed, leading to a rasterized digital surface model (DSM) and digital terrain model (DTM). Finally, a true orthomosaic was projected onto the DTM.&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Coordinate reference system&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;All geospatial data have the coordinate reference system &lt;code&gt;EPSG:31370 - Belgian Lambert 72&lt;/code&gt;.&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Files&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt; &lt;ul&gt; &lt;li&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Raw flight data&lt;/strong&gt;: images and logs collected by the drone during flight. These files are zipped per flight, with the date (&lt;code&gt;yyyymmdd&lt;/code&gt;) and flight number (&lt;code&gt;x&lt;/code&gt;) indicated in the file name (&lt;code&gt;flight_yyyymmdd_Zwin_x.zip&lt;/code&gt;).&lt;/li&gt; &lt;li&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Processed data&lt;/strong&gt;: Digital Surface Models (&lt;code&gt;filename_DSM.tif&lt;/code&gt;) and orthophotos (&lt;code&gt;filename_Ortho.tif&lt;/code&gt;) stitched together from the raw data. The included flights are indicated in the file name (e.g. 6 flights for &lt;code&gt;20150709_Zwin_1-3_20150710_Zwin_1-3_DSM.tif&lt;/code&gt;).&lt;/li&gt; &lt;li&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Ground control points&lt;/strong&gt;: fixed ground control points (GCP) were placed on 2014-04-07, coordinates of which are available in &lt;code&gt;GCP_20140407_Zwin_fixed.tsv&lt;/code&gt;. These GCPs are visible (but fading over time) in all orthophotos except &lt;code&gt;20151012_Zwin_1-4_Ortho.tif&lt;/code&gt; which covers a different area. Additional temporary GCPs were placed on 2014-04-07, 2014-04-10 and 2015-07-09 (visible in orthophotos of those dates), coordinates of which are available in the respective &lt;code&gt;GCP_yyyymmdd_Zwin.tsv&lt;/code&gt; file.&lt;/li&gt; &lt;/ul&gt; &lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Cloud Optimized GeoTIFF&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;The most efficient way to explore the processed data is by loading the &lt;a href="https://www.cogeo.org/"&gt;Cloud Optimized GeoTIFFs&lt;/a&gt; we created for each processed file. Copy one of the file URLs below and follow e.g. the &lt;a href="https://www.cogeo.org/qgis-tutorial.html"&gt;QGIS tutorial&lt;/a&gt; to load this type of file.&lt;/p&gt; &lt;ul&gt; &lt;li&gt;&lt;code&gt;http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lw-remote-sensing/cogeo/20140407_Zwin_1-2_DSM.tif&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/li&gt; &lt;li&gt;&lt;code&gt;http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lw-remote-sensing/cogeo/20140407_Zwin_1-2_Ortho.tif&lt;/code&gt;&amp;nbsp;CIR&lt;/li&gt; &lt;li&gt;&lt;code&gt;http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lw-remote-sensing/cogeo/20140410_Zwin_1-3_DSM.tif&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/li&gt; &lt;li&gt;&lt;code&gt;http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lw-remote-sensing/cogeo/20140410_Zwin_1-3_Ortho.tif&lt;/code&gt;&amp;nbsp;CIR&lt;/li&gt; &lt;li&gt;&lt;code&gt;http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lw-remote-sensing/cogeo/20150709_Zwin_1-3_20150710_Zwin_1-3_DSM.tif&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/li&gt; &lt;li&gt;&lt;code&gt;http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lw-remote-sensing/cogeo/20150709_Zwin_1-3_20150710_Zwin_1-3_Ortho.tif&lt;/code&gt; RGB&lt;/li&gt; &lt;li&gt;&lt;code&gt;http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lw-remote-sensing/cogeo/20151012_Zwin_1-4_DSM.tif&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/li&gt; &lt;li&gt;&lt;code&gt;http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lw-remote-sensing/cogeo/20151012_Zwin_1-4_Ortho.tif&lt;/code&gt; RGB&lt;/li&gt; &lt;/ul&gt; &lt;p&gt;See &lt;a href="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/lw-remote-sensing/index.html"&gt;this page&lt;/a&gt; for an overview of public INBO RPAS data.&lt;/p&gt;</dct:description>
    <dct:description xml:lang="">This dataset was collected using infrastructure provided by INBO and funded by Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO) as part of the Belgian contribution to LifeWatch.</dct:description>
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