Journal article Open Access

"I will fast … tomorrow": Intentions to restrict eating and actual restriction in daily life and their person-level predictors

Reichenberger, Julia; Smyth, Joshua M.; Kuppens, Peter; Blechert, Jens

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    <subfield code="a">food intake</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">dietary restraint</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">eating styles</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">intention-behavior gap</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Departments of Biobehavioral Health and Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University</subfield>
    <subfield code="0">(orcid)0000-0002-0904-5390</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Smyth, Joshua M.</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">KU Leuven, Belgium</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">Kuppens, Peter</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Paris-Lodron University of Salzburg, Department of Psychology, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience</subfield>
    <subfield code="0">(orcid)0000-0002-3820-109X</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Blechert, Jens</subfield>
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    <subfield code="c">10-18</subfield>
    <subfield code="v">140</subfield>
    <subfield code="p">Appetite</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Paris-Lodron University of Salzburg, Department of Psychology, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience</subfield>
    <subfield code="0">(orcid)0000-0003-4982-410X</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Reichenberger, Julia</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">"I will fast … tomorrow": Intentions to restrict eating and actual restriction in daily life and their person-level predictors</subfield>
  <datafield tag="536" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="c">639445</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Transdiagnostic views on eating disorders and obesity and new approaches for treatment</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;Objective. Dietary restraint is a common, yet controversial practice to tackle overweight. Yet,&lt;br&gt;
despite good intentions to reduce food intake, most restraint-based diets fail to produce long term&lt;br&gt;
weight loss. A better understanding of the naturalistic course of daily dieting intentions and their&lt;br&gt;
effectiveness in guiding subsequent eating behavior are therefore needed.&lt;br&gt;
Method. In two studies, participants (n=49 and n=59) reported both their state intention to restrict&lt;br&gt;
eating on the next day, as well as their actual restriction on that day via smartphone-based&lt;br&gt;
evening reports of 12 and 10 days, respectively. Intention-behavior gap scores were calculated as&lt;br&gt;
differences between intention at t1 (e.g. evening intention Monday for restriction Tuesday) and&lt;br&gt;
restriction at t2 (evening report of actual restraint on Tuesday). Restriction-related trait&lt;br&gt;
questionnaires served as predictors of general intention or restriction level, whereas several traitlevel&lt;br&gt;
disinhibiting eating style questionnaires served as predictors for intention-behavior gaps&lt;br&gt;
(difference scores).&lt;br&gt;
Results. Daily intentions to restrict were rated higher than the daily actual restrictive behavior.&lt;br&gt;
Participants with higher scores on restriction-related questionnaires (restrained eating, dieting,&lt;br&gt;
reversed intuitive eating) showed higher levels of daily state intention and restriction. Larger state&lt;br&gt;
intention-behavior gaps, by contrast, were seen in participants scoring high on trait-level&lt;br&gt;
disinhibiting eating styles (emotional eating, stress eating and food craving).&lt;br&gt;
Discussion. The results point to potential risk factors of diet failure in everyday life: emotional,&lt;br&gt;
stress eating, and food craving are disinhibiting traits that seem to increase intention-behavior&lt;br&gt;
gaps. These findings can inform individualized weight-loss interventions: individuals with&lt;br&gt;
disinhibiting traits might need additional guidance to avoid potentially frustrating diet failures.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">10.1016/j.appet.2019.04.019</subfield>
    <subfield code="2">doi</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">publication</subfield>
    <subfield code="b">article</subfield>
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