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"I will fast … tomorrow": Intentions to restrict eating and actual restriction in daily life and their person-level predictors

Reichenberger, Julia; Smyth, Joshua M.; Kuppens, Peter; Blechert, Jens

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  "DOI": "10.1016/j.appet.2019.04.019", 
  "container_title": "Appetite", 
  "title": "\"I will fast \u2026 tomorrow\": Intentions to restrict eating and actual restriction in daily life and their person-level predictors", 
  "issued": {
    "date-parts": [
  "abstract": "<p>Objective. Dietary restraint is a common, yet controversial practice to tackle overweight. Yet,<br>\ndespite good intentions to reduce food intake, most restraint-based diets fail to produce long term<br>\nweight loss. A better understanding of the naturalistic course of daily dieting intentions and their<br>\neffectiveness in guiding subsequent eating behavior are therefore needed.<br>\nMethod. In two studies, participants (n=49 and n=59) reported both their state intention to restrict<br>\neating on the next day, as well as their actual restriction on that day via smartphone-based<br>\nevening reports of 12 and 10 days, respectively. Intention-behavior gap scores were calculated as<br>\ndifferences between intention at t1 (e.g. evening intention Monday for restriction Tuesday) and<br>\nrestriction at t2 (evening report of actual restraint on Tuesday). Restriction-related trait<br>\nquestionnaires served as predictors of general intention or restriction level, whereas several traitlevel<br>\ndisinhibiting eating style questionnaires served as predictors for intention-behavior gaps<br>\n(difference scores).<br>\nResults. Daily intentions to restrict were rated higher than the daily actual restrictive behavior.<br>\nParticipants with higher scores on restriction-related questionnaires (restrained eating, dieting,<br>\nreversed intuitive eating) showed higher levels of daily state intention and restriction. Larger state<br>\nintention-behavior gaps, by contrast, were seen in participants scoring high on trait-level<br>\ndisinhibiting eating styles (emotional eating, stress eating and food craving).<br>\nDiscussion. The results point to potential risk factors of diet failure in everyday life: emotional,<br>\nstress eating, and food craving are disinhibiting traits that seem to increase intention-behavior<br>\ngaps. These findings can inform individualized weight-loss interventions: individuals with<br>\ndisinhibiting traits might need additional guidance to avoid potentially frustrating diet failures.</p>", 
  "author": [
      "family": "Reichenberger, Julia"
      "family": "Smyth, Joshua M."
      "family": "Kuppens, Peter"
      "family": "Blechert, Jens"
  "page": "10-18", 
  "volume": "140", 
  "type": "article-journal", 
  "id": "2784000"
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