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Multi-locus analyses reveal four giraffe species instead of one

Julian Fenessy; Tobias Bidon; Friederike Reuss; Vikas Kumar; Paul Elkan; Maria A. Nilsson; Melita Vamberger; Uwe Fritz; Axel Janke

Julian Fenessy, Tobias Bidon, Friederike Reuss, Vikas Kumar, Paul Elkan, Maria A. Nilsson, Melita Vamberger, Uwe Fritz, Axel Janke (2016): Multi-locus analyses reveal four giraffe species instead of one. Current Biology 2016: 1-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2016.07.036

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  • Avise, J.C., and Ball, R.M., Jr. (1990). Principles of genealogical concordance in species concepts and biological taxonomy. In Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology, Volume 7, D. Futuyama, and J. Antonovics, eds. (Oxford University Press), pp. 45-67.
  • Bock, F., Fennessy, J., Bidon, T., Tutchings, A., Marais, A., Deacon, F., and Janke, A. (2014). Mitochondrial sequences reveal a clear separation between Angolan and South African giraffe along a cryptic rift valley. BMC Evol. Biol. 14, 219.
  • Brown, D.M., Brenneman, R.A., Koepfli, K.-P., Pollinger, J.P., Mila, B., Georgiadis, N.J., Louis, E.E., Jr., Grether, G.F., Jacobs, D.K., and Wayne, R.K. (2007). Extensive population genetic structure in the giraffe. BMC Biol. 5, 5 7.
  • Coyne, J.A., and Orr, H.A. (2004). Speciation (Sinauer).
  • Dagg, A.I., and Foster, J.B. (1976). The Giraffe: Its Biology, Behaviour and Ecology (Van Nostrand Reinhold).
  • De Queiroz, K. (2007). Species concepts and species delimitation. Syst. Biol. 56, 879-886.
  • Elsik, C.G., Tellam, R.L., Worley, K.C., Gibbs, R.A., Muzny, D.M., Weinstock, G.M., Adelson, D.L., Eichler, E.E., Elnitski, L., Guigo, R., et al.; Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (2009). The genome sequence of taurine cattle: a window to ruminant biology and evolution. Science 324, 522-528.
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  • Fennessy, J., Bock, F., Tutchings, A., Brenneman, R., and Janke, A. (2013). Mitochondrial DNA analyses show that Zambia's South Luangwa Valley giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis thornicrofti) are genetically isolated. Afr. J. Ecol. 51, 635-640.
  • Flanagan, S.E., Brown, M.B., Fennessy, J., and Bolger, D.T. (2016). Use of home range behaviour to assess establishment in translocated giraffes. Afr. J. Ecol. Published online April 21, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ aje.12299.
  • Gallus, S., Kumar, V., Bertelsen, M.F., Janke, A., and Nilsson, M.A.(2015). A genome survey sequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) adds new aspects to the evolution of lineage specific retrotransposons in Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla). Gene 571, 27 1-278.
  • Harper, F. (1940). The nomenclature and type localities of certain Old World mammals. J. Mammal. 21, 322-332.
  • Hassanin, A., Delsuc, F., Ropiquet, A., Hammer, C., Jansen van Vuuren, B., Matthee, C., Ruiz-Garcia, M., Catzeflis, F., Areskoug, V., Nguyen, T.T., and Couloux, A. (2012). Pattern and timing of diversification of Cetartiodactyla (Mammalia, Laurasiatheria), as revealed by a comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial genomes. C. R. Biol. 335, 32-50.
  • ICZN (1999). International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature: International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature).
  • Krumbiegel, I. (1971). Die Giraffe (A. Ziemsen Verlag).
  • Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis (Tomus I, Editio Decima) (Laurentius Salvius).
  • Lydekker, R. (1904). On the subspecies of Giraffa camelopardalis. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 74, 202-229.
  • Lydekker, R. (1911). Two undescribed giraffes. Nature 87, 484.
  • Matschie, P. (1898). Einige anscheinend noch nicht beschriebene Saugetiere€ aus Afrika. Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin 1898, 75-81.
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