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Linguistic Bias in Crowdsourced Biographies: A Cross-lingual Examination

Jahna Otterbacher; Ioannis Katakis; Pantelis Agathangelou


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    <creator>
      <creatorName>Jahna Otterbacher</creatorName>
      <nameIdentifier nameIdentifierScheme="ORCID" schemeURI="http://orcid.org/">0000-0002-7655-7118</nameIdentifier>
      <affiliation>Research Centre on Interactive Media, Smart Systems and Emerging Technologies &amp; Cyprus Center for Algorithmic Transparency Open University of Cyprus Nicosia, Cyprus</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Ioannis Katakis</creatorName>
      <affiliation>Computer Science Department University of Nicosia Nicosia, Cyprus</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Pantelis Agathangelou</creatorName>
      <nameIdentifier nameIdentifierScheme="ORCID" schemeURI="http://orcid.org/">0000-0002-9897-4879</nameIdentifier>
      <affiliation>Computer Science Department University of Nicosia Nicosia, Cyprus</affiliation>
    </creator>
  </creators>
  <titles>
    <title>Linguistic Bias in Crowdsourced Biographies: A Cross-lingual Examination</title>
  </titles>
  <publisher>Zenodo</publisher>
  <publicationYear>2019</publicationYear>
  <subjects>
    <subject>Linguistic Bias</subject>
    <subject>Crowdsourced Biographies</subject>
  </subjects>
  <dates>
    <date dateType="Available">2020-03-31</date>
    <date dateType="Accepted">2019-03-01</date>
  </dates>
  <language>en</language>
  <resourceType resourceTypeGeneral="Text">Book section</resourceType>
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    <relatedIdentifier relatedIdentifierType="DOI" relationType="IsIdenticalTo">10.1142/9789813274884_0012</relatedIdentifier>
    <relatedIdentifier relatedIdentifierType="URL" relationType="IsPartOf">https://zenodo.org/communities/rise-teaming-cyprus</relatedIdentifier>
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  <version>Accepted pre-print</version>
  <rightsList>
    <rights rightsURI="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode">Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 International</rights>
    <rights rightsURI="info:eu-repo/semantics/embargoedAccess">Embargoed Access</rights>
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  <descriptions>
    <description descriptionType="Abstract">&lt;p&gt;Biographies make up a significant portion of Wikipedia entries and are a source of information and inspiration for the public. We examine a threat to their objectivity, linguistic biases, which are pervasive in human communication. Linguistic bias, the systematic asymmetry in the language used to describe people as a function of their social groups, plays a role in the perpetuation of stereotypes. Theory predicts that we describe people who are expected &amp;ndash; because they are members of our own in-groups or are stereotype-congruent &amp;ndash; with more abstract, subjective language, as compared to others. Abstract language has the power to sway our impressions of others as it implies stability over time. Extending our monolingual work, we consider biographies of intellectuals at the English- and Greek-language Wikipedias. We use our recently introduced sentiment analysis tool, DidaxTo, which extracts domain-specific opinion words to build lexicons of subjective words in each language and for each gender, and compare the extent to which abstract language is used. Contrary to expectation, we find evidence of gender-based linguistic bias, with women being described more abstractly as compared&amp;nbsp;to men. However, this is limited to English-language biographies. We discuss the implications of using DidaxTo to monitor linguistic bias in texts produced via crowdsourcing.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;</description>
    <description descriptionType="Other">This work has been partly supported by the project that has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 739578 (RISE – Call: H2020-WIDESPREAD-01-2016-2017-TeamingPhase2)  and the Government of the Republic of Cyprus through the Directorate General for European Programmes, Coordination and Development.

Electronic version of a book chapter article published as Multilingual Text Analysis Challenges, Models, and Approaches, 2019, 411–440, https://doi.org/10.1142/9789813274884_0012] © 2019 World Scientific Publishing Company, https://www.worldscientific.com/worldscibooks/10.1142/11116 .</description>
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      <funderName>European Commission</funderName>
      <funderIdentifier funderIdentifierType="Crossref Funder ID">10.13039/501100000780</funderIdentifier>
      <awardNumber awardURI="info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/739578/">739578</awardNumber>
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      <awardNumber awardURI="info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/810105/">810105</awardNumber>
      <awardTitle>Cyprus Center for Algorithmic Transparency</awardTitle>
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