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Is Your Virtual Self as Sensational as Your Real?

Maria Matsangidou; Chee Siang Ang; Alexis R. Mauger; Jittrapol Intarasirisawat; Boris Otkhmezuri; Marios N. Avraamides

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  "note": "This work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Grant Agreement  No 739578 and the Government of the Republic of Cyprus through the Directorate General for European Programmes, Coordination and Development.\n\n\u00a9 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.", 
  "DOI": "10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.07.004", 
  "container_title": "Psychology of Sport and Exercise Volume", 
  "language": "eng", 
  "title": "Is Your Virtual Self as Sensational as Your Real?", 
  "issued": {
    "date-parts": [
  "abstract": "<p>Objectives: Past research has shown that Virtual Reality (VR) is an effective method for reducing the perception of pain and effort associated with exercise. As pain and effort are subjective feelings, they are influenced by a variety of psychological factors, including one&rsquo;s awareness of internal body sensations, known as Private Body Consciousness (PBC). The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the effectiveness of VR in reducing the feeling of exercise pain and effort is moderated by PBC.<br>\nDesign and Methods: Eighty participants were recruited to this study and were randomly assigned to a VR or a non-VR control group. All participants were required to maintain a 20% 1RM isometric bicep curl, whilst reporting ratings of pain intensity and perception of effort. Participants in the VR group completed the isometric bicep curl task whilst wearing a VR device which simulated an exercising environment. Participants in the non-VR group completed a conventional isometric bicep curl exercise without VR. Participants&rsquo; heart rate was continuously monitored along with time to exhaustion. A questionnaire was used to assess PBC.<br>\nResults: Participants in the VR group reported significantly lower pain and effort and exhibited longer time to exhaustion compared to the non-VR group. Notably, PBC had no effect on these measures and did not interact with the VR manipulation.<br>\nConclusions: Results verified that VR during exercise could reduce negative sensations associated with exercise regardless of the levels of PBC.</p>", 
  "author": [
      "family": "Maria Matsangidou"
      "family": "Chee Siang Ang"
      "family": "Alexis R. Mauger"
      "family": "Jittrapol Intarasirisawat"
      "family": "Boris Otkhmezuri"
      "family": "Marios N. Avraamides"
  "page": "218-224", 
  "volume": "41", 
  "version": "Accepted pre-print", 
  "type": "article-journal", 
  "issue": "March 2019", 
  "id": "2668978"
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