Conference paper Open Access
The standard 20ft ISO containers are studied both experimentally and numerically with model obstacles to ascertain the peak overpressures generated in case of an accidental fast deflagrations. Apart from overpressure its often important to know the maximum deflections of the enclosures to examine the structural integrity. The container walls are not rigid; they not only contribute through acoustic response to the pressure waves but also through structural resonance response to the generated overpressures. Hence to capture these effects its necessary to do the fluid structure interaction (FSI) or in simple terms the coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite element analysis (FE) simulations. Alternatively the structural response can be coupled to CFD simulation in either one-way or two-way interactions to reduce the associated computation efforts. Numerical simulations have been conducted with a pseudo two-way coupled CFD & FE, to aid our understanding of the combination of various factor contributing for the generation of overpressures using an in-house solver developed based on open source CFD code OpenFOAM named as HyFOAM. The CFD solver solves the compressible Navier-stokes equations along with the coupled fluid structure interaction model equations. The turbulent flame deflagrations are modelled using the flame area combustion model, The necessary modification are incorporated to governing equations to include the dominant flame instabilities present during the vented deflagration process. For lean hydrogen mixtures the Lewis number effects are important hence suitable modelling improvements are added to the combustion model. The numerical results are first validated against the recent experiments conducted at Gexcon, Norway as part of the HySEA project supported by the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen 2 Joint Undertaking (FCH 2 JU) under the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation. Numerical predictions of CFD and FE coupled, are assessed against the experimental results to study the contributing factors affecting the generated overpressure with in the ISO containers in view to overall improve the numerical predictions.