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Profile Distribution of Physical and Chemical Soil Properties in Izombe, Rainforest Zone of Nigeria.

Osujieke, Donald Nweze; Imadojemu, Pedro Ezemon; Okon, Michael Akpan; Okeke, Obinna Marcellinus

The assessment of the distribution of soil physico-chemical properties facilitates the use of proper soil management practices. Hence, the study was conducted in Izombe rainforest of Nigeria to ascertain the profile distribution of physical and chemical soil properties. Samples were collected from two profile pits base on horizon differentiation for laboratory analyses using standard procedures. Data generated were analyzed statistically using coefficient of variation and correlation. The result indicated that sand recorded 760 g kg-1 in pedon 1, 730.20 g kg-1 in pedon 2 and was predominant in the soil with higher amount at the surface horizon while clay and silt increased down the pedons. Bulk density ranges from 1.14 – 1.79 g cm-3. The AB horizon was the least acidic of the pedons. Most soil chemical properties decreased down the profile. Sand and pH had low variation (≥4.80 % ≤12.60 %) while silt, organic carbon, total nitrogen had high variation (≥41.52 % ≤79.58 %) among the horizons. Fe, Mn and Zn had moderate to high variation among the horizons. Clay correlated negatively and highly significantly (r= -0.829, r= - 0.883, p= 0.01) available phosphorus and Fe. Clay also had a positive significant correlation (r= 0.665, r= 0.641, p= 0.05) with bulk density and base saturation. pH had a significant negative relationship (r= -0.708, p= 0.05) with base saturation while cation exchange capacity had a highly significant positive correlation (r= 0.877, p= 0.01) with Pb. Fe had a negative and highly significant relationship (r= -0.838, p= 0.01) with Zn. The result indicated that most mineral element are domiciled in the A horizon and such demand proper management practices for soil nutrients sustainability.

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