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Cabled ocean observatory data reveal food supply mechanisms to a cold-water coral reef

van Engeland, Tom; Godø, Olav Rune; Johnsen, Espen; Duineveld, Gerard C. A.; van Oevelen, Dick


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{
  "description": "<p>Abstract<br>\nWe investigated food supply mechanisms to a cold-water coral (CWC) reef at 260 m depth on the<br>\nNorwegian continental shelf using data from a cabled ocean observatory equipped with Acoustic<br>\nDoppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), an echosounder, and sensors for chlorophyll, turbidity and<br>\nhydrography in the benthic boundary layer (BBL). Tidal currents of up to tens of cm s-1 dominated<br>\nBBL hydrodynamics while residual currents were weak (~10 cm s-1), emphasizing a supply and high<br>\nretention of locally produced phytodetritus within the trough. A direct connection between the reefs<br>\nand surface organic matter (OM) was established by turbulent mixing and passive particle settling, but<br>\nrelative contributions varied seasonally. Fresh OM from a spring-bloom was quickly mixed into the<br>\nBBL, but temperature stratification in summer reduced the surface-to-bottom connectivity and reduced<br>\nthe phytodetritus supply. A qualitative comparison among acoustic backscatter in the ADCPs (600<br>\nkHz, 190 kHz) and echosounder (70 kHz) suggests that vertically migrating zooplankton may present<br>\nan alternative food source in summer. Nocturnal feeding by zooplankton in the upper water column<br>\nsustains downward OM transport independent from water column mixing and may dominate as food<br>\nsupply pathway over sedimentation of the phytodetritus, especially during stratified conditions. In<br>\naddition, it could present a concentrating mechanism for nutritional components as compensation for<br>\nthe deteriorating phytodetritus quality. Overall, the observed patterns suggest seasonal changes in the<br>\nfood supply pathways to the reef communities. The moderating role of temperature stratification in<br>\nphytodetritus transport suggests stronger dependence of the cold-water corals on zooplankton for their<br>\ndietary requirements with increased stratification under future climate scenarios. This study<br>\ndemonstrates the added value of permanent ocean observatories to research based on dedicated<br>\ncampaigns and regular monitoring.</p>", 
  "license": "http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode", 
  "creator": [
    {
      "affiliation": "NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Department of Estuarine and Delta Systems, and Utrecht University, Korringaweg 7, 4401NT Yerseke, The Netherlands", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "van Engeland, Tom"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Institute of Marine Research, Norway", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "God\u00f8, Olav Rune"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Institute of Marine Research, Norway", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Johnsen, Espen"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Department of Ocean Systems, and Utrecht University, Landsdiep 4, 1797 SZ 't Horntje (Texel), The Netherlands", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Duineveld, Gerard C. A."
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Department of Estuarine and Delta Systems, and Utrecht University, Korringaweg 7, 4401NT Yerseke, The Netherlands", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "van Oevelen, Dick"
    }
  ], 
  "url": "https://zenodo.org/record/2558111", 
  "image": "https://zenodo.org/static/img/logos/zenodo-gradient-round.svg", 
  "datePublished": "2019-02-06", 
  "headline": "Cabled ocean observatory data reveal food supply mechanisms to a cold-water coral reef", 
  "@context": "https://schema.org/", 
  "identifier": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2019.01.007", 
  "@id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2019.01.007", 
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
  "name": "Cabled ocean observatory data reveal food supply mechanisms to a cold-water coral reef"
}
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