Journal article Open Access
Dropping out, an essential indicator to the schools’ performance, is a serious educational problem all over the world. Thus, an investigation on the possible contribution of Family, Individual, Community and School (FICS) related factors to a Learner at Risk of Dropping out (LARDO) was done to aid identification and immediate remediation of Junior High School Learners in a Division in Cebu, Philippines for the School Year 2016-2017. Logistic regression analysis was performed to create a model to predict the probability of being a learner at risk. It showed increase of prediction power from 50% to 88% as the independent variables were entered. The following variables were found significant: (a) gender; (b) deceased father; (c) cyber situation; (d) broken family; (e) inferiority complex; (f) child labor; and (g) lack of community support. Disturbing gender equity issues were evident in the results with increased likelihood for male students of being a LARDO. An intervention plan was crafted to assist schools in the implementation of the Drop Out Reduction Program (DORP). Salient features of the intervention program included the establishment of official forms for tracking LARDOs, a LARDO tendency worksheet based on the model and the establishment of policies that will strengthen LARDO early warning systems. Level of identification was also found to be at minimal in some schools which indicated difficulty of identification needing pertinent training in the intervention program. The results have important implications in the multi-dimensional nature of the dropout problem. The scope of its complexity extends beyond the established school systems. Hence, a multi-dimensional approach should be adapted.
Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., Kim, D., & Reschly, A. L. (2006). Measuring cognitive and psychological engagement: Validation of the student engagement instrument. Journal of School Psychology, 44(5), 427-445.
Ayodele, C. S., & Bada, F. O. (2007). Causes of dropout in schools as perceived by secondary school students in Idanre Local Government. The Journal of Social Science, 2(3), 327-332.
Bernardo, A. B., Zhang, L. F., & Callueng, C. M. (2002). Thinking styles and academic achievement among Filipino students. The journal of Genetic psychology, 163(2), 149-163.
Bridgeland, J. M., DiIulio Jr, J. J., & Morison, K. B. (2006). The silent epidemic: Perspectives of high school dropouts. Washington, DC: Civic Enterprises.
Cervantes, L. F. (1969). The Dropout: Causes and Cures. USA: University of Michigan Press.
Department of Education (2010). DO 74, s. 2010 - Guidelines on mainstreaming the Dropout Reduction Program (DORP) in the public secondary schools. Retrieved from http://www.deped.gov.ph/orders/do-74-s-2010
Department of Education (2016). DO 4, s. 2016 - Amendment to DepEd Order No. 43, s. 2015 (Revised Guidelines for the Basic Education Research Fund [BERF]). Retrieved from http://www.deped.gov.ph/orders/do-4-s-2016
Doll, B., & Hess, R. S. (2001). Through a new lens: Contemporary psychological perspectives on school completion and dropping out of high school. School Psychology Quarterly, 16(4), 351-356.
Furstenberg, F.F., Morgan, S. P., & Allison, P. D. (1987). Paternal participation and children's well-being after marital dissolution. American Sociological Review, 52(5), 695-701.
Jerald, C. D. (2006). Identifying potential dropouts: Key lessons for building an early warning data system. A dual agenda of high standards and high graduation rates. Washington, D. C.: Achieve, Inc.
Randolph, K. A., Fraser, M. W., & Orthner, D. K. (2006). A strategy for assessing the impact of time-varying family risk factors on high school dropout. Journal of Family Issues, 27(7), 933-950.
Rumberger, R. W. (2001). Why Students Drop Out of School and What Can Be Done. UCLA: The Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles. Retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/58p2c3wp
Rumberger, R.W (1995). Dropping out of middle school: A multilevel analysis of students and schools. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 583-625.
Rumberger, R.W. (1995).Dropping out of high school: The influence of race, sex, and family background. American Educational Research Journal, 20(2), 199-220.
Sax, L. (2007). The boy problem: Many boys think school is stupid and reading stinks--Is there a remedy? School Library Journal, 53(9), 40-43.
Sorensen, C. W. (1994). Success and education in South Korea. Comparative Education Review, 38(1), 10-35.
Suler, J. (2004). Computer and cyberspace "addiction". International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 1(4), 359-362.
Tyler, J. H., & Lofstrom, M. (2009). Finishing high school: Alternative pathways and dropout recovery. The Future of Children, 19(1), 77-103.