Journal article Open Access

Progress in Cleaning and Wet Processing for Kesterite Thin Film Solar Cells

B. Vermang, A. Mule, N. Gampa, S. Sahayaraj, S. Ranjbar, G. Brammertz, M. Meuris, J. Poortmans

Copper indium gallium selenide/sulfide (CIGS) and copper zinc tin selenide/sulfide (CZTS) are two thin film photovoltaic materials with many similar properties. Therefore, three new processing steps – which are well-known to be beneficial for CIGS solar cell processing – are developed, optimized and implemented in CZTS solar cells. For all these novel processing steps an increase in minority carrier lifetime and cell conversion efficiency is measured, as compared to standard CZTS processing. The scientific explanation of these effects is very similar to its CIGS equivalent: the incorporation of alkali metals, ammonium sulfide surface cleaning, and Al2O3 surface passivation leads to electrical enhancement of the CZTS bulk, front surface and reduced front interface recombination, respectively.

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