Journal article Open Access

Hard palate in fetal and early neonatal periods of human ontogenesis

Slobodian, Oleksandr; Prodanchuk, Anna


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    <subfield code="u">Department of Anatomy, Topographic Anatomy and Operative Surgery, Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Department of Anatomy, Topographic Anatomy and Operative Surgery, Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Slobodian, Oleksandr</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Background:&lt;/strong&gt; This investigation is important to reveal hard palate ontogenetic transformations in fetal and early neonatal periods, which is important&amp;nbsp;for the facial surgery in fetuses, newborns.&lt;br&gt;
&lt;strong&gt;Material and methods: &lt;/strong&gt;Investigations have been performed in 53 cadavers of fetuses from 4 to 10 months of development, and in 9 cadavers of newborn&amp;nbsp;children of both genders, who died of the reasons not connected with digestive system diseases or anomalies, and were without external signs of anatomic&amp;nbsp;deviations or abnormalities, and were without evident macroscopic deviations of skull structure. Adequate anatomic methods have been used for&amp;nbsp;investigation: macropreparations, topographic anatomical sections, morphometry, and statistical analysis.&lt;br&gt;
&lt;strong&gt;Results: &lt;/strong&gt;Variants of the hard palate shapes during fetal and early neonatal periods of ontogenesis are the following: trapezium (15%), square (10%), and&amp;nbsp;ellipse (7%) shapes. The shapes of the trapezium were detected in most cases in 6-7-month fetuses (20%), and in equal percentage proportion in early&amp;nbsp;and late fetuses (12%). The square form is a characteristic variant form in early fetuses (17%), with fetuses age increase this form was detected in less&amp;nbsp;cases, in 6-7-month fetuses &amp;ndash; in 10%, in late (8-10 month) fetuses &amp;ndash; in 8%, and within the newborn period the square form was not observed. The form&amp;nbsp;of the ellipse was observed in larger percentage proportion in late fetuses and in newborns (12%), in less proportion (5%) &amp;ndash; in 6-7-month fetuses, in early&amp;nbsp;fetuses this form was not detected at all. Forms of the ellipse and of the trapezium were observed in equal number of cases in 8-10-month fetuses and&amp;nbsp;newborns. With fetuses development the hard palate form in sagittal and frontal planes changed from arcuate to flat one.&lt;br&gt;
&lt;strong&gt;Conclusions: &lt;/strong&gt;An ascertainment of typical and variant anatomy of hard palate forms and types would promote implementation of the new methods of&amp;nbsp;major and reconstructive surgical invasions in face and skull.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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