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Detection of venous gas emboli after repetitive breath-hold dives: case report

Cialoni, D; Pieri, M; Giunchi, G; Sponsiello, N; Lanzone, MA; Torcello, L; Boaretto, G; Marroni, A


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{
  "description": "<p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Neurological symptoms after breath-hold (BH) diving are often referred to as \u201cTaravana\u201d and considered a form of decompression sickness. However, the presence of \u201chigh\u201d gas embolism after BH diving has never been clearly shown. This study showed high bubble formation after BH diving.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>We performed transthoracic echocardiography on a 53-year-old male spearfishing diver (180 cm; 80 kg; BMI 24.7) 15 minutes before diving and at 15-minute intervals for 90 minutes after diving in a 42-meter-deep pool. Number of dives, bottom time and surface intervals were freely determined by the diver. Dive profiles were digitally recorded for depth, time and surface interval, using a freediving computer. Relative surface interval (surface interval/diving time) and gradient factor were calculated.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Results: </strong>High bubble grades were found in all the recorded echocardiograms. From the first to third recording (45 minutes), Grade 4 Eftedal-Brubakk (EB) bubbles were observed. The 60-, 75- and 90-minute recordings showed a reduction to Grades 3, 2 and 1 EB. Mean calculated GF for every BH dive was 0.22; maximum GF after the last dive was 0.33.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>High bubble grades can occur in BH diving, as confirmed by echocardiographic investigation. Ordinary methods to predict inert gas super- saturation may not able to predict Taravana cases.</p>", 
  "license": "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode", 
  "creator": [
    {
      "affiliation": "DAN Europe Research Division, Roseto degli Abruzzi, Italy; Apnea Academy Research, Padua, Italy", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Cialoni, D"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "DAN Europe Research Division, Roseto degli Abruzzi, Italy", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Pieri, M"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "DAN Europe Research Division, Roseto degli Abruzzi, Italy", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Giunchi, G"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "DAN Europe Research Division, Roseto degli Abruzzi, Italy; Apnea Academy Research, Padua, Italy", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Sponsiello, N"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "UU.OO. di Cardiologia e Cardiochirurgia; Istituto Clinico San Rocco, Ome (Bs), Lombardy, Italy", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Lanzone, MA"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Habilita, Hyperbaric department, Zingonia (BG), Lombardy, Italy", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Torcello, L"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Swimming pool Y-40 research coordinator, Padua, Italy", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Boaretto, G"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "DAN Europe Research Division, Roseto degli Abruzzi, Italy", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Marroni, A"
    }
  ], 
  "headline": "Detection of venous gas emboli after repetitive breath-hold dives: case report", 
  "image": "https://zenodo.org/static/img/logos/zenodo-gradient-round.svg", 
  "datePublished": "2016-07-01", 
  "url": "https://zenodo.org/record/221913", 
  "keywords": [
    "Taravana", 
    "Breath-hold diving", 
    "Diving", 
    "DCI", 
    "European Union (EU)", 
    "Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions", 
    "Grant Agreement No 643712", 
    "Green Bubbles RISE for sustainable diving", 
    "Green Bubbles"
  ], 
  "@context": "https://schema.org/", 
  "identifier": "https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.221913", 
  "@id": "https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.221913", 
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
  "name": "Detection of venous gas emboli after repetitive breath-hold dives: case report"
}
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