Poster Open Access

The Twenty-First Century Conflicts

Marsili, Marco

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  "publisher": "Zenodo", 
  "DOI": "10.5281/zenodo.1992458", 
  "language": "eng", 
  "title": "The Twenty-First Century Conflicts", 
  "issued": {
    "date-parts": [
  "abstract": "<p>Alongside non-international and international conflict, a third category of armed conflict is emerging: hybrid, asymmetric, and&nbsp;transnational conflict&nbsp;which involve state and non-state actors such as insurgents or terrorist organizations.&nbsp;Unconventional conflicts are among the trend topics of defense and security, and they pose a threat to the stability of international order. States and international&nbsp;organizations, such as the UN and NATO, face difficulty using legal tools currently provided by international law, in particular international humanitarian law (IHL) and the law of war (Geneva and Hague conventions).</p>\n\n<p>The question is how current international law applies or can be adapted to these conflicts. There are some questions to be fixed. First, we should find whether new rules are required to deal with situations of hybrid conflict, or if current rules are still valid and can be used/adapted. Secondly, we should determine whether IHL applies in transnational armed conflict against non-state groups, and if their members cease to be targetable during a pause in their active involvement, and whether there can be a non-international armed conflict which has no finite territorial boundaries with a non-state armed group operating transnationally. Lastly, we should assess whether&nbsp;attacks carried out by a transnational organisation&nbsp;and its affiliates meet the criteria of qualifying as a state of armed conflict under IHL.</p>", 
  "author": [
      "family": "Marsili, Marco"
  "id": "1992458", 
  "note": "This poster was presented at 14h00 in the Parallel Session AR1, Part 1, at the Instituto Universit\u00e1rio Militar (IUM), Lisboa, Portugal, and later published in the conference proceedings, together with an extended abstract of the presentation. This poster received financial support by the European Social Fund (ESF) and by the Funda\u00e7\u00e3o para a Ci\u00eancia e a Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal, under research grant SFRH/BD/136170/2018.", 
  "event-place": "Instituto Universit\u00e1rio Militar (IUM), Pedrou\u00e7os, Lisboa, Portugal", 
  "type": "graphic", 
  "event": "Encontro Anual da Investiga\u00e7\u00e3o & Desenvolvimento em Ci\u00eancias Militares 2018: \"\"Investiga\u00e7\u00e3o em Ci\u00eancias Militares: Atualidade e perspetivas futuras\" (EAI&DCM 2018)"
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