Journal article Open Access

(11)C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bonds made easily for positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals.

Rotstein, Benjamin H; Liang, Steven H; Placzek, Michael S; Hooker, Jakob M; Gee, Antony D; Dollé, Frédéric; Wilson, Alan A; Vasdev, Neil


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    "description": "<p>The positron-emitting radionuclide carbon-11 ((11)C, t1/2 = 20.3 min) possesses the unique potential for radiolabeling of any biological, naturally occurring, or synthetic organic molecule for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Carbon-11 is most often incorporated into small molecules by methylation of alcohol, thiol, amine or carboxylic acid precursors using [(11)C]methyl iodide or [(11)C]methyl triflate (generated from [(11)C]carbon dioxide or [(11)C]methane). Consequently, small molecules that lack an easily substituted (11)C-methyl group are often considered to have non-obvious strategies for radiolabeling and require a more customized approach. [(11)C]Carbon dioxide itself, [(11)C]carbon monoxide, [(11)C]cyanide, and [(11)C]phosgene represent alternative reactants to enable (11)C-carbonylation. Methodologies developed for preparation of (11)C-carbonyl groups have had a tremendous impact on the development of novel PET tracers and provided key tools for clinical research. (11)C-Carbonyl radiopharmaceuticals based on labeled carboxylic acids, amides, carbamates and ureas now account for a substantial number of important imaging agents that have seen translation to higher species and clinical research of previously inaccessible targets, which is a testament to the creativity, utility and practicality of the underlying radiochemistry.</p>", 
    "license": {
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    "title": "(11)C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bonds made easily for positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals.", 
    "journal": {
      "volume": "45", 
      "issue": "17", 
      "pages": "4708-26", 
      "title": "Chem Soc Rev."
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    "keywords": [
      "carbon-11", 
      "positron emission tomography", 
      "radiochemistry,", 
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      "carbon monoxide", 
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    "publication_date": "2016-06-08", 
    "creators": [
      {
        "affiliation": "Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.", 
        "name": "Rotstein, Benjamin H"
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      {
        "affiliation": "Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.", 
        "name": "Liang, Steven H"
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      {
        "affiliation": "Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, MGH, HMS, Charlestown, USA and McLean Hospital, Belmont, USA", 
        "name": "Placzek, Michael S"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, MGH, HMS, Charlestown, USA", 
        "name": "Hooker, Jakob M"
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      {
        "affiliation": "King\u2019s College London, London, UK", 
        "name": "Gee, Antony D"
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        "affiliation": "CEA \u2013 Institut d\u2019imagerie biom\u00e9dicale, Service hospitalier Fr\u00e9d\u00e9ric Joliot, Universit\u00e9 Paris-Saclay, Orsay, France", 
        "name": "Doll\u00e9, Fr\u00e9d\u00e9ric"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada", 
        "name": "Wilson, Alan A"
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        "affiliation": "Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.", 
        "name": "Vasdev, Neil"
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