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Intracerebral transplantation of interleukin 13-producing mesenchymal stem cells limits microgliosis, oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination in the cuprizone mouse model

Le Blon, Debbie; Guglielmetti, Caroline; Hoornaert, Chloé; Quarta, Alessandra; Daans, Jasmijn; Dooley, Dearbhaile; Lemmens, Evi; Praet, Jelle; De Vocht, Nathalie; Reekmans, Kristien; Santermans, Eva; Hens, Niel; Goossens, Herman; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie; Berneman, Zwi; Hendrix, Sven; Ponsaerts, Peter


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    <dct:title>Intracerebral transplantation of interleukin 13-producing mesenchymal stem cells limits microgliosis, oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination in the cuprizone mouse model</dct:title>
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    <dcat:keyword>Interleukin 13</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>Mesenchymal stem cells</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>Neuroinflammation</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>Transplantation</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>Magnetic resonance imaging</dcat:keyword>
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    <dct:description>&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Background: &lt;/strong&gt;Promoting the neuroprotective and repair-inducing effector functions of microglia and macrophages, by means of M2 polarisation or alternative activation, is expected to become a new therapeutic approach for central nervous system (CNS) disorders in which detrimental pro-inflammatory microglia and/or macrophages display a major contribution to the neuropathology. In this study, we present a novel in vivo approach using intracerebral grafting of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) genetically engineered to secrete interleukin 13 (IL13-MSC).&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Methods: &lt;/strong&gt;In the first experimental setup, control MSC and IL13-MSC were grafted in the CNS of eGFP&lt;sup&gt;+&lt;/sup&gt; bone marrow chimaeric C57BL/6 mice to histologically evaluate IL13-mediated expression of several markers associated with alternative activation, including arginase1 and Ym1, on MSC graft-recognising microglia and MSC graft-infiltrating macrophages. In the second experimental setup, IL13-MSC were grafted on the right side (or on both the right and left sides) of the &lt;i&gt;splenium&lt;/i&gt; of the &lt;i&gt;corpus callosum&lt;/i&gt; in wild-type C57BL/6 mice and in C57BL/6 CX&lt;sub&gt;3&lt;/sub&gt;CR1&lt;sup&gt;eGFP/+&lt;/sup&gt;CCR2&lt;sup&gt;RFP/+&lt;/sup&gt; transgenic mice. Next, CNS inflammation and demyelination was induced by means of a cuprizone-supplemented diet. The influence of IL13-MSC grafting on neuropathological alterations was monitored by non-invasive &lt;i&gt;T&lt;/i&gt; &lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and quantitative histological analyses, as compared to cuprizone-treated mice with control MSC grafts and/or cuprizone-treated mice without MSC injection.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Results: &lt;/strong&gt;In the first part of this study, we demonstrate that MSC graft-associated microglia and MSC graft-infiltrating macrophages are forced into alternative activation upon grafting of IL13-MSC, but not upon grafting of control MSC. In the second part of this study, we demonstrate that grafting of IL13-MSC, in addition to the recruitment of M2 polarised macrophages, limits cuprizone-induced microgliosis, oligodendrocyte death and demyelination. Furthermore, we here demonstrate that injection of IL13-MSC at both sides of the splenium leads to a superior protective effect as compared to a single injection at one side of the splenium.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Conclusions: &lt;/strong&gt;Controlled and localised production of IL13 by means of intracerebral MSC grafting has the potential to modulate cell graft- and pathology-associated microglial/macrophage responses, and to interfere with oligodendrocyte death and demyelinating events in the cuprizone mouse model.&lt;/p&gt;</dct:description>
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