Serious, therefore Organised? A Critique of the Emerging “Cyber-Organised Crime” Rhetoric in the United Kingdom
This paper, based on discourse analysis of policy documents, departs from a critique of the juxtaposition of the terms “serious” and “organised” in policies against organised crime in the UK. The conceptualisation of organised crime as national security threat supports our hypothesis that a similar critique can be applied to the emerging narrative of cyber-organised crime in the country. We argue that, whereby organised crime has become essentially “serious” as consequence of its characterisation as a national security threat, cyber crime is becoming “organised” in the policy narrative because of its seriousness. The seriousness and organisation of cyber crime justifies its inclusion within the national security agenda, thus accessing the procedural benefits of criminal intelligence assigned to national security threats. The implications associated to the evolution of such narratives in policy-making need to be assessed while policies are still developing.
Bossler, A. M., & Holt, T. J. (2012). Patrol officers' perceived role in responding to cybercrime. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 35(1), 165-181. Brenner, S. W. (2002). Organized cybercrime? How cyberspace may affect the structure of criminal relationships. North Carolina Journal of Law and Technology, 4(1), 1-50. Bright, J. (2012). Securitisation, terror, and control: towards a theory of the breaking point. Review of International Studies, 38(4), 861-879. Brown, C. S. (2015). Investigating and Prosecuting Cyber Crime: Forensic Dependencies and Barriers to Justice. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 9(1), 55-73. Burns, R. G., Withworth, K. H., & Thompson, C.Y. (2004). Assessing law enforcement preparedness to address Internet fraud. Journal of Criminal Justice, 32(5), 477-493. Buzan, B., Wæver, O., & de Wilde, J. (1998). Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. Cabinet Office (2009). Extending our reach: a comprehensive approach to tackling serious organised crime. London: Home Office. Campbell, L. (2013). Organised crime and the law: a comparative analysis. Bloomsbury Publishing. Campbell, L. (2014). Organized Crime and National Security: A Dubious Connection? New Criminal Law Review, 17(2). Carrapico, H. (2014). Analysing the European Union's responses to organized crime through different securitization lenses, European Security, 23(4), 601-661. CENTREX (2007). Practice Advice: Introduction to Intelligence-Led Policing, on behalf of Association of Chief Police Officers. Wyboston, England: National Centre for Policing Excellence. CEOP (2012). Threat Assessment of child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse. London: Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre. CEOP (2013). Threat Assessment of child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse. London: Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre. Choo, K. K. R., & Smith, R. G. (2007). Criminal exploitation of online systems by organised crime groups. Asian Journal of Criminology, 3(1), 37–59. City of London Police (2016). Counterfeit Goods. Retrieved from: https://www.cityoflondon.police.uk/advice-and-support/fraud-and-economic-crime/pipcu/Pages/counterfeit-goods.aspx. Dragan, A. T. (2015). Procedural Aspects of Cybercrime Investigation. Journal of Legal Studies, 16(30), 55-66. Druckman, J. N. (2001). The Implications of Framing Effects for Citizen Competence. Political Behavior, 23(3), 225-256. Edwards, A., & Gill, P. (2006). After Transnational Organised Crime? The Politics of Public Safety. In: A. Edwards & P. Gill (Eds.), Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security (pp. 264-282). London: Routledge. Edwards, A., & Levi, M. (2008). Researching the organization of serious crimes. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 8(4), 363-388. Europol (2015). Internet facilitated organized crime (IOCTA). The Hague: European Police Office. Farrand, B., & Carrapico, H. (2012). Copyright law as a matter of (inter)national security? The attempt to securitise commercial infringement and its spill over onto individual liability. Crime Law Soc Change, 57(4), 373–401. Foucault, M. (1972). The Archaeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language. New York: Pantheons Books. Heath-Kelly, C. (2013). Counter-Terrorism and the Counterfactual: Producing the “Radicalisation” Discourse and the UK PREVENT Strategy. The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 15(3), 394-415. HM Government (2010). A Strong Britain in an Age of Uncertainty: The National Security Strategy. London: The Stationery Office. Hobbs, D. (2013). Lush life: constructing organised crime in the UK. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Home Office (2004). One step ahead: a 21st century strategy to defeat organised crime. London: Home Office. Home Office (2010a). Local to Global: reducing the risk from organised crime. London: Home Office. Home Office (2010b). A Strong Britain in an Age of Uncertainty: The National Security Strategy. London: The stationery office. Home Office (2010c). Cyber Crime Strategy. London: The stationery office. Home Office (2013). Serious organised crime strategy. London: The Stationery Office. Home Office (2014). Home Secretary's speech “Understanding and Confronting Organised Crime”, delivered at the Royal United Services Institute on Wednesday 11 June. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/home-secretarys-speech-on-organised-crime-at-rusi. Home Office (2015). The serious and organised crime strategy: annual report for 2014. London: The Stationery Office. Hutchings, A. (2014). Crime from the keyboard: organised cybercrime, co-offending, initiation and knowledge transmission. Crime, Law and Social Change, 62(1), 1–20. Huysmans, J. (2002). Defining Social Constructivism in Security Studies: The Normative Dilemma of Writing Security. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 27(1), 41-62. Huysmans, J. (2004). Minding Exceptions: Politics of Insecurity and Liberal Democracy. Contemporary Political Theory, 3(3), 321–41. Huysmans, J., & Buonfino, A. (2008). Politics of Exception and Unease: Immigration, Asylum and Terrorism in Parliamentary Debates in the UK. Political Studies, 56(4), 766-788. Innes, M., & Sheptycki, J. W. E. (2004). From Detection to Disruption: Intelligence and the Changing Logic of Police Crime Control in the United Kingdom. International Criminal Justice Review, 14, 1-18. Katzenstein, P. (1996). The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics. New York: Columbia University Press. King, M., & Sharp, D. (2006). Global security and policing change: the impact of “securitisation” on policing in England and Wales. Police Practice and Research, 7(5), 379-390. Lavorgna, A. (2015). Organised crime goes online: Realities and challenges. Journal of Money Laundering Control, 18(2). Lavorgna, A. (2016). Exploring the cyber-organised crime narrative: The hunt for a new bogeyman? In P.C. van Duyne et al. (Eds.), Organising fears, Crime & Law Enforcement New horizons and trends in Europe & beyond. Oisterveijk: Wolf Legal Publishers. Leukfeldt E. R., Lavorgna A., & Kleemans E. R. (2016). Organised cybercrime or cybercrime that is organised? An assessment of the conceptualisation of financial cybercrime as organised crime (under review) Levi, M. (2014). Thinking about Organised Crime. Structure and Threat. The RUSI Journal, 159(1), 6-14. Lusthaus, J. (2013). How organised is organised cybercrime? Global Crime, 14(1), 52-60. Martin, J. (2014). Lost on the Silk Road: online drug distribution and the “cryptomarket”. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 14, 351–367. McCusker, R. (2006). Transnational organized cyber crime: distinguishing threat from reality. Crime, Law and Social Change, 46(4), 257-273. McDonald, M. (2008). Securitization and the Construction of Security. European Journal of International Relations, 14(4), 563–587. McGuire M. (2007). Hypercrime. The new geometry of harm. Oxon (UK) & New York: Routledge. NCA (2014a). National Strategic Assessment of Serious and Organised Crime 2014, London: The Stationery Office. NCA (2014b). International law enforcement deals major blow to dark web markets. News. Retrieved from http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/news/483-international-law-enforcement-deals-major-blow-to-dark-web-markets. NCIS (2000). The National Intelligence Model, London: National Criminal Intelligence Service. Neal, A. W. (2009). Securitization and risk at the EU border: the origins of FRONTEX. Journal of Common Market Studies, 47(2), 333-356. Nelson, T. E., Clawson, R. A., & Oxley, Z. M. (1997). Media framing of a civil liberties conflict and its effect on tolerance. American Political Science Review, 91, 567–583. Paoli, L. (2002). The paradoxes of organized crime. Crime, Law and Social Change, 37(1), 51–97. Rebovich, D. J., & Layne, J. (with Jiandani, J. & Hage, S.) (2010). The National Public Survey on White Collar Crime, Morgantown, WV: National White Collar Crime Center. Rider B. A. K. (2001). Cyber-organised crime. The impact of information technology on organised crime. Journal of Financial Crime, 8(4), 332-346. Sergi, A. (2014). Structure versus Activity. Policing Organized Crime in Italy and in the UK, Distance and Convergence. Policing, 8(1), 69-78. Sergi, A. (2015a). Divergent Mind-sets, Convergent Policies. Policing Models against Organised Crime in Italy and in England within International Frameworks. European Journal of Criminology, 12(6), 568-680. Sergi, A. (2015b). Organised crime in English criminal law: lessons from the United States on conspiracy and criminal enterprise. Journal of Money Laundering Control, 18(2), 182-201. Sergi, A. (2016). National security vs criminal law. Perspectives, doubts and concerns on the criminalisation of organised crime in England and Wales. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research (online first), 1007/s10610-016-9304-3. Shields, J. (2016). Baroness Shields on preventing crime in the digital age. Speech. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/baroness-shields-on-preventing-crime-in-the-digital-age. SOCA (2011). Annual Report 2010-11. London: The Stationery Office. Stritzel, H. (2012). Securitization, power, intertextuality: discourse theory and the translations of organized crime. Security Dialogue, 43(6), 549-567. van Duyne, P.C. (2004). Fears, naming and knowing: an introduction. In: P.C. van Duyne, M. Jager, K. von Lampe, & J. L. Newell (Eds.), Threats and phantoms of organised crime, corruption and terrorism. Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers, pp.1-21. van Duyne, P.C., & Vander Beken, T. (2009). The incantations of the EU organised crime policy making. Crime Law and Social Change, 51, 261-281. von Lampe, K. (2008). Organized Crime in Europe: Conceptions and Realities. Policing, 2(1), 7-17. Wæver, O. (1995). Securitization and Desecuritization. In R. D. Lipschutz (Ed.), On Security (pp. 46-86) New York: Columbia University Press. Wall, D. (2015). Dis-organised crime: Towards a distributed model of the organisation of cybercrime. The European Review of Organised Crime, 2(2), 71-90. Wall, D.S. (2008). Cybercrime, media and insecurity: The shaping of public perceptions of cybercrime. International Review of Law, Computers, & Technology, 22(1-2), 45-63. Wall, D. S. (2014). Internet Mafias? The Dis-Organisation of Crime on the Internet. In S. Caneppele & F. Calderoni (Eds.), Organised Crime, Corruption and Crime Prevention (pp. 227-239). London, Springer, Yar, M. (2013). The policing of Internet sex offences: pluralised governance versus hierarchies of standing. Policing and Society, 23(4), 482-497.