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Nemo-Nordic 1.0: A NEMO based ocean model for Baltic & North Seas, research and operational applications

Robinson Hordoir; Lars Axell; Anders Höglund; Christian Dieterich; Filippa Fransner; Matthias Gröger; Ye Liu; Per Pemberton; Semjon Schimanke; Helen Andersson; Patrik Ljungemyr; Petter Nygren; Adam Nord; Anette Jönsson; Irène Lake; Kristofer Döös; Magnus Hieronymus; Heiner Dietze; Ulrike Löptien; Ivan Kuznetsov; Antti Westerlund; Laura Tuomi; Jari Haapala

We present Nemo-Nordic, a Baltic & North Sea model based on the NEMO ocean engine. Surrounded by highly industrialised countries, the Baltic and North seas, and their assets associated with shipping, fishing and tourism; are vulnerable to anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Ocean models providing reliable forecasts, and enabling climatic studies, are important tools for the shipping infrastructure and to get a better understanding of effects of climate change on the marine ecosystems. Nemo-Nordic is intended to come as a tool for both short term and long term simulations, and to be used for ocean forecasting as well as process and climatic studies. Here, the scientific and technical choices within Nemo-Nordic are introduced, and the reasons behind the design of the model and its domain, and the inclusions of the two seas, are explained. The model's ability to represent barotropic and baroclinic dynamics, as well as the vertical structure of the water column, is presented. Biases are shown and discussed. The short term capabilities of the model are presented, and especially its capabilities to represent sea level on an hourly timescale with a high degree of accuracy. We also show that the model can represent longer time scale, with a focus on the Major Baltic Inflows and the variability of deep water salinity in the Baltic Sea.

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