Thesis Open Access

Numérique et régime français des savoirs en~action : l'open en sciences. Le cas de la consultation République numérique (2015)

Gruson-Daniel Célya


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{
  "publisher": "Zenodo", 
  "DOI": "10.5281/zenodo.1491292", 
  "language": "fra", 
  "title": "Num\u00e9rique et r\u00e9gime fran\u00e7ais des savoirs en~action : l'open en sciences.  Le cas de la consultation R\u00e9publique num\u00e9rique (2015)", 
  "issued": {
    "date-parts": [
      [
        2018, 
        11, 
        19
      ]
    ]
  }, 
  "abstract": "<p>Cette recherche prend la forme d&rsquo;une enqu&ecirc;te au sein des milieux de production des savoirs fran&ccedil;ais contemporains et vise &agrave; comprendre les diff&eacute;rentes significations du terme <em>open </em>en sciences. J&rsquo;ai consid&eacute;r&eacute; le qualificatif <em>open</em> comme une formule. L&rsquo;analyse de ses traductions en fran&ccedil;ais (ouvert, libre, gratuit), tout autant que des noms qui lui sont associ&eacute;s (<em>science</em>, <em>data</em>, <em>access</em>), constitue le fil directeur de mon &eacute;tude. Cette enqu&ecirc;te, qui a d&eacute;but&eacute; en 2013, s&rsquo;est surtout centr&eacute;e sur un &eacute;v&egrave;nement particulier, la consultation sur le projet de loi pour une R&eacute;publique num&eacute;rique (septembre-octobre 2015), en particulier l&rsquo;article 9 sur &laquo;&nbsp;le libre acc&egrave;s aux publications scientifiques de la recherche publique&nbsp;&raquo;. Cette consultation en ligne a donn&eacute; une envergure nationale et publique aux probl&eacute;matiques d&rsquo;acc&egrave;s aux savoirs. En tant qu&rsquo;&eacute;preuve de r&eacute;alit&eacute; &laquo;&nbsp;&eacute;quip&eacute;e&nbsp;&raquo; d&rsquo;un dispositif num&eacute;rique participatif, elle a &eacute;t&eacute; l&rsquo;occasion d&rsquo;observer presque &laquo;&nbsp;en direct&nbsp;&raquo; la d&eacute;fense de diff&eacute;rentes conceptions de &laquo;&nbsp;ce que devrait &ecirc;tre&nbsp;&raquo; le r&eacute;gime contemporain des savoirs en France.</p>\n\n<p>M&rsquo;inscrivant dans une d&eacute;marche par th&eacute;orisation ancr&eacute;e, j&rsquo;ai constitu&eacute; progressivement, &agrave; propos de ce moment particulier de cristallisation des d&eacute;bats sur l&rsquo;<em>open</em> en sciences, un corpus de documents refl&eacute;tant le d&eacute;ploiement des &eacute;changes sur des espaces/dispositifs num&eacute;riques distincts&nbsp;: site web de la consultation, blogs scientifiques, revues acad&eacute;miques, m&eacute;dias &laquo;&nbsp;grand public&nbsp;&raquo;, rapports. Les mouvements it&eacute;ratifs de cette enqu&ecirc;te, alliant m&eacute;thodes num&eacute;riques (r&eacute;alisation d&rsquo;une cartographie de similarit&eacute; des votes) et analyse qualitative du corpus, tout autant que les concepts th&eacute;oriques mobilis&eacute;s &agrave; la crois&eacute;e entre sciences de l&rsquo;information et de la communication et sociologie pragmatique de la critique, ont donn&eacute; lieu &agrave; une mod&eacute;lisation.</p>\n\n<p>Cette derni&egrave;re expose les perspectives argumentatives et les strat&eacute;gies dans l&rsquo;&eacute;preuve mises en &oelig;uvre par diverses parties prenantes pour faire valoir leurs conceptions. Elle montre qu&rsquo;elles sont sous-tendues par des logiques que j&rsquo;ai rattach&eacute;es &agrave; des esprits successifs du r&eacute;gime fran&ccedil;ais des savoirs. Par la suite, en passant de la mod&eacute;lisation &agrave; une th&eacute;orisation transposable &agrave; d&rsquo;autres terrains de recherche, je montre comment, derri&egrave;re les discours sur l&rsquo;<em>open</em>, la distinction entre deux logiques (technoindustrielle ou processuelle) peut &ecirc;tre pertinente pour analyser les reconfigurations actuelles d&rsquo;autres agencements soci&eacute;taux. Les strat&eacute;gies dans l&rsquo;&eacute;preuve employ&eacute;es lors de la consultation illustrent dans ce sens la coexistence de deux conceptions &laquo;&nbsp;num&eacute;riques&nbsp;&raquo; de la d&eacute;mocratie (repr&eacute;sentative &eacute;tendue ou contributive), pr&eacute;sentes dans le <em>design</em> m&ecirc;me de la plateforme consultative.</p>\n\n<p>Dans la derni&egrave;re partie, je propose d&rsquo;expliquer les dynamiques de reconfiguration d&rsquo;un esprit et d&rsquo;un agencement soci&eacute;tal dans une interpr&eacute;tation &eacute;nactive en consid&eacute;rant les couplages permanents entre cognition, actions m&eacute;di&eacute;es par les technologies et environnement sociotechnique. L&rsquo;exp&eacute;rience m&ecirc;me du doctorat narr&eacute;e tout au long de ce r&eacute;cit constitue aussi l&rsquo;exemple d&rsquo;un processus d&rsquo;&eacute;naction sur mes propres conceptions de l&rsquo;<em>open</em>. En ce sens, elle ouvre une piste de r&eacute;flexion sur la nature situ&eacute;e et incarn&eacute;e de toute production de savoirs, qui n&#39;&eacute;chappe pas aux limites tout autant qu&rsquo;aux potentialit&eacute;s de la m&eacute;tacognition. &nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>", 
  "author": [
    {
      "family": "Gruson-Daniel C\u00e9lya"
    }
  ], 
  "note": "THE FRENCH REGIME OF KNOWLEDGES AND ITS DYNAMICS: \u00a0OPEN IN SCIENCES AND DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES IN DEBATE. \nTHE CASE STUDY OF THE FRENCH BILL FOR A \"DIGITAL REPUBLIC\" (2015)\n\nThis research investigates the worlds of contemporary French knowledge production in order to understand the different meanings of the term 'open' in sciences. Specific attention has been drawn to the qualifying adjective 'open' in relation to the French translations (ouvert, libre gratuit) as well as associated terms (science, data, access) with this formula. This inquiry began in 2013 and focused mainly on a specific event, the consultation on the bill for a \"Digital Republic\" (September-October 2015), in particular Article 9 on \"open access to scientific publications in public research\". This online consultation has allowed for a national and public scope to the issue of access to knowledges. As an \"equipped\" reality test via a participative website, arose the opportunity to observe almost \"live\" the defense of different conceptions of \"what should be\" the contemporary regime of knowledges in France.\nThrough a grounded theory approach around this particular crystallisation moment of the debates on open in sciences has led me to gradually constitute a corpus of documents, reflecting the deployment of the exchanges on different digital spaces/apparatus (consultation website, scientific blogs, academic notebooks, mainstream press, etc.). Within an iterative research process, I combined digital methods (digital mapping of the similarity of votes) and qualitative analysis of the corpus, as well as the theoretical concepts mobilized at the crossroads between information and communication sciences and \"pragmatic sociology of critique\".\nThis enabled the development of a model which shows that the argumentative perspectives and the strategies in the test implemented by various stakeholders to promote their own conceptions are underpinned by logics, which I have attached to \"spirits\" of the French regime of knowledges. Subsequently, by switching from modeling to transposable theorization into other fields of research, I show how the distinction between two logics (technoindustrial or processual), behind the discourses on open, can be relevant to analyze the current reconfigurations of other \"societal arrangements\". The consultation by itself illustrates this point with the coexistence of two \"digital\" conceptions of democracy (extended representative or contributive), embodied in the design of the consultative platform.\nIn the last part, I propose to explain the dynamics between the reconfiguration of a spirit and its social arrangement, by considering the permanent coupling between cognition, technologically mediated actions and socio-technical environment. Finally, the PhD experience narrated throughout this inquiry is also an example of an enaction process on my own conceptions of open. In this sense, it opens further reflections on the situated and\u00a0incarnated nature of any production of knowledges, which escapes neither the limits nor the potentialities of metacognition.\n\n\n\n\nKeywords: open, regime of knowledges, democracy, debate, digital technologies, enaction", 
  "type": "thesis", 
  "id": "1491292"
}
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