Journal article Open Access

"TiCoSa" a 3d matrix conceptual model to investigate visitors' perceptions in an athletic event

Anestis Fotiadis; Russell Blair Williams

Visitor behavior can determine athletic events structure making it an important consideration for managers. In this study visitor behavior is analyzed using a new managerial tool called “TiCoSa – Time, Cost, and Satisfaction Activity Blocks” which permits managers to see the time, cost and satisfaction distribution of visitor activities. Through this tool time periods were classified and used as a means of describing visitor flow and behavior in various time blocks within a day. Expenditure patterns were also identified in relation to specific cost blocks relating to the consumption of preferred products and services. Afterword satisfaction was evaluated for each attribute. The recording of information is achieved by a descriptive data collection instrument which reflects time, satisfaction and cost distribution of visitors’ activities. Data collection will be accomplished by means of a diary-type semi-structured questionnaire which will be administered in face-to-face interviews with visitors. Despite limitations, the present research provides useful suggestions for grouping visitor activities (i.e. based on time distribution analysis of activities), which could constitute a basis for better managerial decision making.

SUBMITTED: DEC 2017; REVISION SUBMITTED: APR 2017; ACCEPTED: JUN 2018; REFEREED ANONYMOUSLY; PUBLISHED ONLINE: 15 NOVEMBER 2018
Files (309.0 kB)
Name Size
4-2-5.pdf
md5:684192b1a0eec0ef44ae61717ac38d8b
309.0 kB Download
  • Abel, D. A., Rick, A. F. and David, A. C. (2007) "Does age matter? How age influences the winery experience". International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol.1, No.2, pp. 131-139.
  • Andersson, T. D. and Mossberg, L. (2004) "The dining experience: do restaurants satisfy customer needs?". Food Service Technology studies, Vol.4, No.4, pp. 171-177.
  • Andriotis, K. (2011). A comparative study of visitors to Urban, coastal and rural areas – evidence from the Island of Crete. European Journal of Tourism Research, 4(2), 93-108.
  • Anthopoulou, T. (2010) "Rural women in local agrofood production: Between entrepreneurial initiatives and family strategies. A case study in Greece". Journal of Rural Studies, Vol.26, No.4, pp. 394-403.
  • Arcodia, C., & Reid, S. (2005). Event Management Associations and the Provision of Services. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 6(4), 5-25.
  • Barber, N., Goodman, R. J. and Goh, B. K. (2011) "Restaurant consumers repeat patronage: A service quality concern". International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol.30, No.2, pp. 329-336.
  • Berridge, G. (2007). Events Design and Experience. Oxford: Elsevier.
  • Birenboim, A., Anton-Clavé, S., Russo, A. P., & Shoval, N. (2013). Temporal Activity Patterns of Theme Park Visitors. Tourism Geographies, 1-19. doi:10.1080/14616688.2012.762540
  • Brody, M., & Tomkiewicz, W. (2002). Park visitors' understandings, values and beliefs related to their experience at Midway Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA. International Journal of Science Education, 24(11), 1119-1141. doi:10.1080/09500690210134820
  • Capriello, A., & Rotherham, I. D. (2011). Building a Preliminary Model of Event Management for Rural Communities. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 20(3-4), 246-264.
  • Carbonell, P., Rodríguez‐Escudero, A. I., & Pujari, D. (2009). Customer involvement in new service development: An examination of antecedents and outcomes. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 26(5), 536-550.
  • Caroline Lego, M. and Natalie, T. W. (2009) "A recipe for success: understanding regional perceptions of authenticity in themed restaurants". International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol.3, No.3, pp. 269-280.
  • Chalip, L., & Leyns, A. (2002). Local business leveraging of a sport event: Managing an event for economic benefit. Journal of Sport Management, 16, 132-158.
  • Chang, W.-R., Li, K. W., Huang, Y.-H., Filiaggi, A. and Courtney, T. K. (2006) "Objective and subjective measurements of slipperiness in fast-food restaurants in the USA and their comparison with the previous results obtained in Taiwan". Safety Science, Vol.44, No.10, pp. 891-903.
  • Chatzigeorgiou, C. & Christou, E. (2016). Destination branding and visitor brand loyalty: Evidence from mature tourism destinations in Greece. TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, 11(5), 102-123.
  • Chatzigeorgiou, C. & Simeli, I. (2017). Perception of service quality in agrotourism accommodations: Impact on guest loyalty and re-visit intentions. Journal of Tourism, Heritage & Services Marketing, 3(1), 33–41. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.401375
  • Chatzigeorgiou, C., Christou, E., Kassianidis, P. & Sigala, M. (2009). Examining the Relationship between Emotions, Customer Satisfaction and Future Behavioral Intentions in Agrotourism. TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, 4(4), 145-161.
  • Cheng, C.-C., Chen, C.-T., Hsu, F.-S. and Hu, H.-Y. (2012) "Enhancing service quality improvement strategies of fine-dining restaurants: New insights from integrating a two-phase decision-making model of IPGA and DEMATEL analysis". International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol.31, No.4, pp. 1155-1166.
  • Choo, H. and Petrick, J. F. (2014) "Social interactions and intentions to revisit for agritourism service encounters". Tourism Management, Vol.40, 372-381.
  • Chou, C.-J., Chen, K.-S. and Wang, Y.-Y. (2012) "Green practices in the restaurant industry from an innovation adoption perspective: Evidence from Taiwan". International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol.31, No.3, pp. 703-711.
  • Christou, E. (2010). Relationship Marketing Practices for Retention of Corporate Customers in Hospitality Contract Catering. Tourism & Hospitality Management, 16(1), 1-10.
  • Christou, E. (2015). Branding social media in the travel industry. Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 175, pp 607-614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.1244
  • Cortina, J. M. (1993) "What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications". Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.78, No.1, pp. 98-104.
  • Cunningham, G., & Kwon, H. (2003). The Theory of Planned Behaviour and Intentions to Attend a Sport Event. Sport Management Review, 6, 127–145.
  • Del Chiappa, G. (2013) "Internet versus travel agencies: the perception of different groups of Italian online buyers". Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol.19, 55-66.
  • Evanschitzky, H., Rlyer, G., Plassmann, H., Niessing, J. and Meffert, H. (2006) "The relative strength of affective commitment in securing loyalty in service relationships.". Journal of Business Research, Vol.59, No.12, pp. 1207-1213.
  • Folinas, D. K., Bochtis, D. D. and Sorensen, C. A. G. (2011) "In-field logistics processes management based on business activities monitoring systems paradigm". International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, Vol.8, No.1, pp. 1-18.
  • Fornell, C. (1992) "A national customer satisfaction barometer: The Swedish experience". Journal of Marketing, Vol.56, No.1, pp. 6-21.
  • Fotiadis, A. (2018). Modelling wedding marketing strategies: An fsQCA Analysis. Journal of Tourism, Heritage & Services Marketing, 4(1),
  • Fotiadis, A. K, & Stylos, N. (2017). The effects of online social networking on retail consumer dynamics in the attractions industry: The case of 'E-da' theme park, Taiwan. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2016.06.033
  • Fotiadis, A. K. (2016), "Modifying and applying time and cost blocks: The case of E-Da theme park, Kaohsiung, Taiwan", Tourism Management, Vol. 54, pp. 34-42.
  • Fotiadis, A. K. and Vassiliadis, C. A. (2016), "Service Quality at Theme Parks", Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, Vol. 17 No. 2, pp. 178-190.
  • Fotiadis, A., & Vassiliadis, C. (2012). What motivates people to be involved in Sport Tourism events? The Greek case of Sfendami International Mountain Festival. Paper presented at the 4TH ASIA-EURO CONFERENCE 2012 IN TOURISM, HOSPITALITY & GASTRONOMY "The Way Forward: Exploring Multidisciplinary Approaches", Taylor's University, Lakeside Campus, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Fotiadis, A., Huan, T.-C., & Costantino, C. (2013). An Analysis of Visitor Behaviour Using Time Blocks: The Case of E-Da Theme Park, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Paper presented at the The 3rd Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Marketing & Management Conference, The Grand Hotel, Taipei, Taiwan.
  • Griffin, A., & Hauser, J. (1993). The Voice of the Customer. Marketing Science, 12(1), 1-27.
  • Grönroos, C. (2000). Service Management and Marketing – A Customer Relationship Management Approach: Wiley, Chichester.
  • Joo, H. H., Kang, H.-G., & Moon, J. J. (2012). The Effect of Rain on the Decision to Visit a Theme Park. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research. doi:10.1080/10941665.2012.724020
  • Kawamura, Kurumatani, & Ohuchi. (2004). Modeling of theme park problem with multiagent for mass user support, (pp. 48-69). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
  • Knott, B., Fyall, A., & Jones, I. (2015). The nation branding opportunities provided by a sport mega-event: South Africa and the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 4(1), 46-56. doi:10.1016/j.jdmm.2014.09.001
  • Lee, J.-S., Lee, C.-K., & Park, C.-K. (2014). Developing and validating a multidimensional quality scale for mega-events. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 43, 121-131. doi:10.1016/j.ijhm.2014.09.003
  • Lovelock, C., & Wirtz, J. (2011). Services marketing: People, technology, strategy. Boston: Pearson.
  • Ma, E.J., Duan, B., Shu, L.M. & Arcodia, C. (2017). Chinese visitors at Australia wineries: Preferences, motivations, and barriers. Journal of Tourism, Heritage & Services Marketing, 3(1), 3–8. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.401062
  • Mensah, I. & Mensah, R. (2018). Effects of Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction on Repurchase Intention in Restaurants on University of Cape Coast Campus. Journal of Tourism, Heritage & Services Marketing, 4(1), 27–36. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1247542
  • Nella, A. & Christou, E. (2014). Segmenting Wine Tourists on the Basis of Involvement with Wine, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 31(7), 783-798, https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2014.889639
  • Nella, A. & Christou, E. (2016). Extending tourism marketing: Implications for targeting the senior tourists' segment. Journal of Tourism, Heritage & Services Marketing, 2(1), 36–42. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.376336
  • O'Halloran, R. M. (2014). Managing Major Sports Events: Theory and Practice. Tourism Management, 43(0), 89-90. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.01.016
  • Robinson, J. P. (2011). IT use and leisure time displacement. Information, Communication & Society. 14(4), 495-509.
  • Samy, H. (2016). Exploring Factors that Influence Domestic Tourists' Satisfaction with Budget Hotel Services in Egypt. Journal of Tourism, Heritage & Services Marketing, 2(2), 17–22. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.376344
  • Sigala, M. & Christou, E. (2006). Global trends and challenges in services, Managing Service Quality: An International Journal. 16(4), 345-348, https://doi.org/10.1108/09604520610675685
  • Spyridou, A. (2017). Perceived Service Quality and Customer Revisiting Intention: The Case of "all you can eat" Asian Restaurants in Southern Taiwan. Journal of Tourism, Heritage & Services Marketing, 3(2), 30–38. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1209129
  • Tsai, C.-Y., & Chung, S.-H. (2012). A personalized route recommendation service for theme parks using RFID information and tourist behavior. Decision Support Systems, 52(2), 514-527.
  • Vaara, M., & Matero, J. (2011). Modeling daily outdoor recreation participation and time-use as a two-stage choice process: a Finnish example. Leisure sciences, 33(4), 269-289.
  • Vassiliadis, C. A., Priporas, C.-V., & Andronikidis, A. (2013). An analysis of visitor behaviour using time blocks: A study of ski destinations in Greece. Tourism Management (34), 61-70.
  • Vassiliadis, C., & Fotiadis, A. (2014). Conjoint analysis of sporting events: the case of Taiwan. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Contemporary Marketing Issues, Athens, Greece.
  • Werner, K., Dickson, G., & Hyde, K. F. (2015). Learning and knowledge transfer processes in a mega-events context: The case of the 2011 Rugby World Cup. Tourism Management, 48, 174-187. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2014.11.003
  • Yalowitz, S. S., & Bronnenkant, K. (2009). Timing and Tracking: Unlocking Visitor Behavior. Visitor Studies, 12(1), 47-64. doi:10.1080/10645570902769134
19
18
views
downloads
All versions This version
Views 1919
Downloads 1818
Data volume 5.6 MB5.6 MB
Unique views 1414
Unique downloads 1616

Share

Cite as