Journal article Open Access
This paper provides a new unified formula for Newtonian fluids valid for all pipe flow regimes from laminar to fully rough turbulent flow. This includes laminar flow; the unstable sharp jump from laminar to turbulent flow; and all types of turbulent regimes, including the smooth turbulent regime, the partial non-fully developed turbulent regime, and the fully developed rough turbulent regime. The new unified formula follows the inflectional form of curves suggested in Nikuradse's experiment rather than the monotonic shape proposed by Colebrook and White. The composition of the proposed unified formula uses switching functions and interchangeable formulas for the laminar, smooth turbulent, and fully rough turbulent flow regimes. Thus, the formulation presented below represents a coherent hydraulic model suitable for engineering use. This new flow friction model is more flexible than existing literature models and provides smooth and computationally cheap transitions between hydraulic regimes.