Journal article Open Access
Cinzia Corinaldesi; Francesca Marcellini; Ettore Nepote; Elisabetta Damiani; Roberto Danovaro
Most coral reefs worldwide are threatened by natural and anthropogenic impacts. Among them, the release in seawater of sunscreen products commonly used by tourists to protect their skin against the harmful effects of UV radiations, can affect tropical corals causing extensive and rapid bleaching. The use of inorganic (mineral) filters, such as zinc and titanium dioxide (ZnO and TiO2) is increasing due to their broad UV protection spectrum and their limited penetration into the skin. In the present study, we evaluated through field experiments, the impact on the corals Acropora spp. of uncoated ZnO nanoparticles and two modified forms of TiO2 (Eusolex ® T2000 and OptisolTM9 ), largely utilized in commercial sunscreens together with organic filters. Our results demonstrate that uncoated ZnO induces a severe and fast coral bleaching due to the alteration of the symbiosis between coral and zooxanthellae. ZnO also directly affects symbiotic dinoflagellates and stimulates microbial enrichment in the seawater surrounding the corals. Conversely, Eusolex ® T2000 and OptisolTM caused minimal alterations in the symbiotic interactions and did not cause bleaching, resulting more eco-compatible than ZnO. Due to the vulnerability of coral reefs to anthropogenic impacts and global change, our findings underline the need to accurately evaluate the effect of commercial filters on marine life to minimize or avoid this additional source of impact to the life and resilience ability of coral reefs.