Working paper Open Access
The standard model of physics classifies particles into elementary leptons and hadrons composed of quarks. In this article the existence of an alternate ordering principle will be demonstrated giving particle energies to be quantized as a function of the fine-structure constant, α. The quantization can be derived using an appropriate wave function that acts as a probability amplitude on the electric field. The value of α itself can be approximated numerically by the gamma functions of the integrals involved.
The model may be used to calculate other particle properties as well. The magnetic moment may be calculated directly from the electromagnetic fields. In the range of femtometer the wave function overlap provides a mechanism for strong interaction. The model gives quantitative terms for strong, Coulomb and gravitational interaction of particles indicating a common base of these three forces.
Necessary input parameters for all calculations can be reduced to elementary charge and electric constant only.