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Outdoor blue spaces, human health and well-being: A systematic review of quantitative studies

Gascon, Mireia; Zijlema, Wilma; Vert, Cristina; White, Mathew; Nieuwenshuijsen, Mark


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  <dc:creator>Gascon, Mireia</dc:creator>
  <dc:creator>Zijlema, Wilma</dc:creator>
  <dc:creator>Vert, Cristina</dc:creator>
  <dc:creator>White, Mathew</dc:creator>
  <dc:creator>Nieuwenshuijsen, Mark</dc:creator>
  <dc:date>2017-08-18</dc:date>
  <dc:description>Abstract

Background: a growing number of quantitative studies have investigated the potential benefits of outdoor blue spaces (lakes, rivers, sea, etc) and human health, but there is not yet a systematic review synthesizing this evidence.

Objectives: to systematically review the current quantitative evidence on human health and well-being benefits of outdoor blue spaces.

Methods: following PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis, observational and experimental quantitative studies focusing on both residential and non-residential outdoor blue space exposure were searched using specific keywords.

Results: in total 35 studies were included in the current systematic review, most of them being classified as of “good quality” (N=22). The balance of evidence suggested a positive association between greater exposure to outdoor blue spaces and both benefits to mental health and well-being (N=12 studies) and levels of physical activity (N=13 studies). The evidence of an association between outdoor blue space exposure and general health (N= 6 studies), obesity (N=8 studies) and cardiovascular (N=4 studies) and related outcomes was less consistent.

Conclusions: although encouraging, there remains relatively few studies and a large degree of heterogeneity in terms of study design, exposure metrics and outcome measures, making synthesis difficult. Further research is needed using longitudinal research and natural experiments, preferably across a broader range of countries, to better understand the causal associations between blue spaces, health and wellbeing.</dc:description>
  <dc:identifier>https://zenodo.org/record/1434290</dc:identifier>
  <dc:identifier>10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.08.004</dc:identifier>
  <dc:identifier>oai:zenodo.org:1434290</dc:identifier>
  <dc:language>eng</dc:language>
  <dc:relation>info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/666773/</dc:relation>
  <dc:relation>info:eu-repo/semantics/altIdentifier/pmid/28843736</dc:relation>
  <dc:rights>info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess</dc:rights>
  <dc:rights>https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode</dc:rights>
  <dc:source>International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220(November 2017) 1207-1221</dc:source>
  <dc:subject>outdoor</dc:subject>
  <dc:subject>blue spaces</dc:subject>
  <dc:subject>health</dc:subject>
  <dc:subject>well-being</dc:subject>
  <dc:title>Outdoor blue spaces, human health and well-being: A systematic review of quantitative studies</dc:title>
  <dc:type>info:eu-repo/semantics/article</dc:type>
  <dc:type>publication-article</dc:type>
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