Journal article Open Access

Outdoor blue spaces, human health and well-being: A systematic review of quantitative studies

Gascon, Mireia; Zijlema, Wilma; Vert, Cristina; White, Mathew; Nieuwenshuijsen, Mark


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{
  "inLanguage": {
    "alternateName": "eng", 
    "@type": "Language", 
    "name": "English"
  }, 
  "description": "<p><strong>Abstract</strong></p>\n\n<p>Background: a growing number of quantitative studies have investigated the potential benefits of outdoor blue spaces (lakes, rivers, sea, etc) and human health, but there is not yet a systematic review synthesizing this evidence.</p>\n\n<p>Objectives: to systematically review the current quantitative evidence on human health and well-being benefits of outdoor blue spaces.</p>\n\n<p>Methods: following PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis, observational and experimental quantitative studies focusing on both residential and non-residential outdoor blue space exposure were searched using specific keywords.</p>\n\n<p>Results: in total 35 studies were included in the current systematic review, most of them being classified as of &ldquo;good quality&rdquo; (N=22). The balance of evidence suggested a positive association between greater exposure to outdoor blue spaces and both benefits to mental health and well-being (N=12 studies) and levels of physical activity (N=13 studies). The evidence of an association between outdoor blue space exposure and general health (N= 6 studies), obesity (N=8 studies) and cardiovascular (N=4 studies) and related outcomes was less consistent.</p>\n\n<p>Conclusions: although encouraging, there remains relatively few studies and a large degree of heterogeneity in terms of study design, exposure metrics and outcome measures, making synthesis difficult. Further research is needed using longitudinal research and natural experiments, preferably across a broader range of countries, to better understand the causal associations between blue spaces, health and wellbeing.</p>", 
  "license": "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode", 
  "creator": [
    {
      "affiliation": "ISGlobal, Barcelona Ctr. Int. Health Res. (CRESIB), Hospital Cl\u00ednic - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Gascon, Mireia"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "ISGlobal, Barcelona Ctr. Int. Health Res. (CRESIB), Hospital Cl\u00ednic - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Zijlema, Wilma"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "ISGlobal, Barcelona Ctr. Int. Health Res. (CRESIB), Hospital Cl\u00ednic - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Vert, Cristina"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "European Centre for Environment & Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Truro, UK", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "White, Mathew"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "ISGlobal, Barcelona Ctr. Int. Health Res. (CRESIB), Hospital Cl\u00ednic - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Nieuwenshuijsen, Mark"
    }
  ], 
  "sameAs": [
    "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28843736"
  ], 
  "image": "https://zenodo.org/static/img/logos/zenodo-gradient-round.svg", 
  "datePublished": "2017-08-18", 
  "headline": "Outdoor blue spaces, human health and well-being: A systematic review of quantitative studies", 
  "url": "https://zenodo.org/record/1434290", 
  "keywords": [
    "outdoor", 
    "blue spaces", 
    "health", 
    "well-being"
  ], 
  "@context": "https://schema.org/", 
  "identifier": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.08.004", 
  "@id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.08.004", 
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
  "name": "Outdoor blue spaces, human health and well-being: A systematic review of quantitative studies"
}
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