Journal article Open Access

Outdoor blue spaces, human health and well-being: A systematic review of quantitative studies

Gascon, Mireia; Zijlema, Wilma; Vert, Cristina; White, Mathew; Nieuwenshuijsen, Mark


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  <identifier identifierType="URL">https://zenodo.org/record/1434290</identifier>
  <creators>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Gascon, Mireia</creatorName>
      <givenName>Mireia</givenName>
      <familyName>Gascon</familyName>
      <affiliation>ISGlobal, Barcelona Ctr. Int. Health Res. (CRESIB), Hospital Clínic - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Zijlema, Wilma</creatorName>
      <givenName>Wilma</givenName>
      <familyName>Zijlema</familyName>
      <affiliation>ISGlobal, Barcelona Ctr. Int. Health Res. (CRESIB), Hospital Clínic - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Vert, Cristina</creatorName>
      <givenName>Cristina</givenName>
      <familyName>Vert</familyName>
      <affiliation>ISGlobal, Barcelona Ctr. Int. Health Res. (CRESIB), Hospital Clínic - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>White, Mathew</creatorName>
      <givenName>Mathew</givenName>
      <familyName>White</familyName>
      <affiliation>European Centre for Environment &amp; Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Truro, UK</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Nieuwenshuijsen, Mark</creatorName>
      <givenName>Mark</givenName>
      <familyName>Nieuwenshuijsen</familyName>
      <affiliation>ISGlobal, Barcelona Ctr. Int. Health Res. (CRESIB), Hospital Clínic - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain</affiliation>
    </creator>
  </creators>
  <titles>
    <title>Outdoor blue spaces, human health and well-being: A systematic review of quantitative studies</title>
  </titles>
  <publisher>Zenodo</publisher>
  <publicationYear>2017</publicationYear>
  <subjects>
    <subject>outdoor</subject>
    <subject>blue spaces</subject>
    <subject>health</subject>
    <subject>well-being</subject>
  </subjects>
  <dates>
    <date dateType="Issued">2017-08-18</date>
  </dates>
  <language>en</language>
  <resourceType resourceTypeGeneral="Text">Journal article</resourceType>
  <alternateIdentifiers>
    <alternateIdentifier alternateIdentifierType="pmid">28843736</alternateIdentifier>
    <alternateIdentifier alternateIdentifierType="url">https://zenodo.org/record/1434290</alternateIdentifier>
  </alternateIdentifiers>
  <relatedIdentifiers>
    <relatedIdentifier relatedIdentifierType="DOI" relationType="IsIdenticalTo">10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.08.004</relatedIdentifier>
  </relatedIdentifiers>
  <rightsList>
    <rights rightsURI="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode">Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 International</rights>
    <rights rightsURI="info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess">Open Access</rights>
  </rightsList>
  <descriptions>
    <description descriptionType="Abstract">&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Abstract&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;Background: a growing number of quantitative studies have investigated the potential benefits of outdoor blue spaces (lakes, rivers, sea, etc) and human health, but there is not yet a systematic review synthesizing this evidence.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;Objectives: to systematically review the current quantitative evidence on human health and well-being benefits of outdoor blue spaces.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;Methods: following PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis, observational and experimental quantitative studies focusing on both residential and non-residential outdoor blue space exposure were searched using specific keywords.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;Results: in total 35 studies were included in the current systematic review, most of them being classified as of &amp;ldquo;good quality&amp;rdquo; (N=22). The balance of evidence suggested a positive association between greater exposure to outdoor blue spaces and both benefits to mental health and well-being (N=12 studies) and levels of physical activity (N=13 studies). The evidence of an association between outdoor blue space exposure and general health (N= 6 studies), obesity (N=8 studies) and cardiovascular (N=4 studies) and related outcomes was less consistent.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;Conclusions: although encouraging, there remains relatively few studies and a large degree of heterogeneity in terms of study design, exposure metrics and outcome measures, making synthesis difficult. Further research is needed using longitudinal research and natural experiments, preferably across a broader range of countries, to better understand the causal associations between blue spaces, health and wellbeing.&lt;/p&gt;</description>
  </descriptions>
  <fundingReferences>
    <fundingReference>
      <funderName>European Commission</funderName>
      <funderIdentifier funderIdentifierType="Crossref Funder ID">10.13039/501100000780</funderIdentifier>
      <awardNumber awardURI="info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/666773/">666773</awardNumber>
      <awardTitle>Linking Up Environment, Health and Climate for Inter-sector Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in a Rapidly Changing Environment</awardTitle>
    </fundingReference>
  </fundingReferences>
</resource>
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