Journal article Open Access

Association between Breakfast Intake and Short-Term Memory, Performance and Mood among Saudi Female Adolescents

Amal ALRAYES; Hajar ALOWAYSHIQ; Hind ALTAMIMI; Reem ALANGARI; Nada BENAJIBA


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    <subfield code="a">Breakfast intake</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">Mood</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">Short-term memory</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;BACKGROUND&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;strong&gt;:&lt;/strong&gt; Breakfast consumption is labelled as the most important meal of the day. It might be of significant importance for adolescent students as it might influence their short-term memory, performance, and mood. However, the prevalence of skipping breakfast, among adolescents, in Saudi Arabia is high. &lt;strong&gt;AIMS&lt;/strong&gt;: To investigate the association between breakfast intake and short-term memory, performance, and mood, among Saudi female adolescents. &lt;strong&gt;METHODS and MATERIAL&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;strong&gt;:&lt;/strong&gt; A Cross-sectional study was conducted in a secondary female School (Riyadh) involving 170 students (15-19 years). Structured questionnaires on breakfast eating habits, student performance at school, a standardized questionnaire mood and feeling, and a standardized short-term memory test were used for data collection. Statistical analysis used Chi&lt;sup&gt;2&lt;/sup&gt; test and ANOVA test to assess the association between breakfast intake and the studied parameters.&lt;strong&gt; RESULTS&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;strong&gt;:&lt;/strong&gt; Only 39% of participants keep their daily breakfast. Frequency of breakfast intake was strongly and positively associated with improved performance (R&lt;sup&gt;2&lt;/sup&gt;=0.87, p&amp;lt;0.001), and to short-term memory score (R&lt;sup&gt;2&lt;/sup&gt;=0.5, p&amp;lt;0.05).&amp;nbsp; However, no correlation between daily breakfast intake and mood was obtained. &lt;strong&gt;CONSLUSIONS&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;strong&gt;:&lt;/strong&gt; This study confirmed the high rate of skipping breakfast among Saudi female adolescents, and provides further evidence on the beneficial effect of breakfast intake on student&amp;rsquo;s short-term memory as well as the school performance. Nutrition education program targeting this population should be implemented to enhance its awareness on the importance of breakfast intake.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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