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Association between Breakfast Intake and Short-Term Memory, Performance and Mood among Saudi Female Adolescents

Amal ALRAYES; Hajar ALOWAYSHIQ; Hind ALTAMIMI; Reem ALANGARI; Nada BENAJIBA


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    "description": "<p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong><strong>:</strong> Breakfast consumption is labelled as the most important meal of the day. It might be of significant importance for adolescent students as it might influence their short-term memory, performance, and mood. However, the prevalence of skipping breakfast, among adolescents, in Saudi Arabia is high. <strong>AIMS</strong>: To investigate the association between breakfast intake and short-term memory, performance, and mood, among Saudi female adolescents. <strong>METHODS and MATERIAL</strong><strong>:</strong> A Cross-sectional study was conducted in a secondary female School (Riyadh) involving 170 students (15-19 years). Structured questionnaires on breakfast eating habits, student performance at school, a standardized questionnaire mood and feeling, and a standardized short-term memory test were used for data collection. Statistical analysis used Chi<sup>2</sup> test and ANOVA test to assess the association between breakfast intake and the studied parameters.<strong> RESULTS</strong><strong>:</strong> Only 39% of participants keep their daily breakfast. Frequency of breakfast intake was strongly and positively associated with improved performance (R<sup>2</sup>=0.87, p&lt;0.001), and to short-term memory score (R<sup>2</sup>=0.5, p&lt;0.05).&nbsp; However, no correlation between daily breakfast intake and mood was obtained. <strong>CONSLUSIONS</strong><strong>:</strong> This study confirmed the high rate of skipping breakfast among Saudi female adolescents, and provides further evidence on the beneficial effect of breakfast intake on student&rsquo;s short-term memory as well as the school performance. Nutrition education program targeting this population should be implemented to enhance its awareness on the importance of breakfast intake.</p>", 
    "language": "eng", 
    "title": "Association between Breakfast Intake and Short-Term Memory, Performance and Mood among Saudi Female Adolescents", 
    "license": {
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    "journal": {
      "volume": "02", 
      "issue": "04", 
      "pages": "75-80", 
      "title": "The North African Journal of Food and Nutrition Research"
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    "keywords": [
      "Breakfast intake", 
      "Mood", 
      "Short-term memory", 
      "Performance", 
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    "publication_date": "2018-09-06", 
    "creators": [
      {
        "name": "Amal ALRAYES"
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      {
        "name": "Hajar ALOWAYSHIQ"
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      {
        "name": "Hind ALTAMIMI"
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      {
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