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Rare Earth Element distribution in the NE Atlantic: Evidence for benthic sources, longevity of the seawater signal, and biogeochemical cycling

Crocket, Kirsty; Hill, Emily; Abell, Richard; Johnson, Clare; Gary, Stefan; Brand, Tim; Hathorne, E.


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    "description": "<p>Seawater rare earth element (REE) concentrations are increasingly applied to reconstruct</p>\n\n<p>water mass histories by exploiting relative changes in the distinctive normalised patterns.</p>\n\n<p>However, the mechanisms by which water masses gain their patterns are yet to be</p>\n\n<p>fully explained. To examine this, we collected water samples along the Extended Ellett</p>\n\n<p>Line (EEL), an oceanographic transect between Iceland and Scotland, and measured</p>\n\n<p>dissolved REE by offline automated chromatography (SeaFAST) and ICP-MS. The</p>\n\n<p>proximity to two continental boundaries, the incipient spring bloom coincident with the</p>\n\n<p>timing of the cruise, and the importance of deep water circulation in this climatically</p>\n\n<p>sensitive gateway region make it an ideal location to investigate sources of REE to</p>\n\n<p>seawater and the effects of vertical cycling and lateral advection on their distribution. The</p>\n\n<p>deep waters have REE concentrations closest to typical North Atlantic seawater and are</p>\n\n<p>dominated by lateral advection. Comparison to published seawater REE concentrations</p>\n\n<p>of the same water masses in other locations provides a first measure of the temporal</p>\n\n<p>and spatial stability of the seawater REE signal. We demonstrate the REE pattern is</p>\n\n<p>replicated for Iceland-Scotland OverflowWater (ISOW) in the Iceland Basin from adjacent</p>\n\n<p>stations sampled 16 years previously. A recently published Labrador Sea Water (LSW)</p>\n\n<p>dissolved REE signal is reproduced in the Rockall Trough but shows greater light and</p>\n\n<p>mid REE alteration in the Iceland Basin, possibly due to the dominant effect of ISOW</p>\n\n<p>and/or continental inputs. An obvious concentration gradient from seafloor sediments to</p>\n\n<p>the overlying water column in the Rockall Trough, but not the Iceland Basin, highlights</p>\n\n<p>release of light and mid REE from resuspended sediments and pore waters, possibly</p>\n\n<p>a seasonal effect associated with the timing of the spring bloom in each basin. The</p>\n\n<p>EEL dissolved oxygen minimum at the permanent pycnocline corresponds to positive</p>\n\n<p>heavy REE enrichment, indicating maximum rates of organic matter remineralisation</p>\n\n<p>and associated REE release. We tentatively suggest a bacterial role to account for the</p>\n\n<p>observed heavy REE deviations. This study highlights the need for fully constrained</p>\n\n<p>REE sources and sinks, including the temporary nature of some sources, to achieve</p>\n\n<p>a balanced budget of seawater REE.</p>", 
    "license": {
      "id": "CC-BY-4.0"
    }, 
    "title": "Rare Earth Element distribution in the NE Atlantic: Evidence for benthic sources, longevity of the seawater signal, and biogeochemical cycling", 
    "journal": {
      "volume": "5", 
      "title": "Frontiers in Marine Science"
    }, 
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        "title": "A Trans-AtLantic Assessment and deep-water ecosystem-based Spatial management plan for Europe", 
        "acronym": "ATLAS", 
        "program": "H2020", 
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    "publication_date": "2018-04-30", 
    "creators": [
      {
        "affiliation": "SAMS", 
        "name": "Crocket, Kirsty"
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      {
        "affiliation": "SAMS", 
        "name": "Hill, Emily"
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      {
        "affiliation": "SAMS", 
        "name": "Abell, Richard"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "SAMS", 
        "name": "Johnson, Clare"
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      {
        "affiliation": "SAMS", 
        "name": "Gary, Stefan"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "SAMS", 
        "name": "Brand, Tim"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "GEOMAR", 
        "name": "Hathorne, E."
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