Conference paper Open Access
Marroquin, Miguel; Madina, Carlos; Pardo, Miguel
This paper looks at the national cases of Spain and Denmark during the first two years of the SmartNet project whereby the project explores the role of aggregator to study in depth the participation in ancillary services of flexibility from DSO-connected batteries in radio-based stations in the city of Barcelona (Spain) and thermal inertia from swimming pools in summer houses in Jutland and Esbjerg (Denmark). The role of aggregator in both the simulations and the physical pilots is analysed to test novel management systems and communication schemes with Distributed Energy Resources (DER) by means of direct and indirect controls. On the one hand, direct control uses traditional bidirectional communication to harness flexibility while presenting several issues in providing scalability. On the other hand, indirect control broadcasts unidirectional signal that is interpreted by the flexible assets, simplifying the communication when millions of DERs are considered at the expense of reducing control or response certainty.