Journal article Open Access

4D Modelling of Low Visibility Underwater Archaeological Excavations Using Multi-Source Photogrammetry in the Bulgarian Black Sea

Rodrigo Pacheco-Ruiz; Jonathan Adams; Felix Pedrotti

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    <subfield code="a">4D modelling</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">underwater photogrammetry</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">Bronze Age</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">low visibility.</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">Jonathan Adams</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">4D Modelling of Low Visibility Underwater Archaeological Excavations Using Multi-Source Photogrammetry in the Bulgarian Black Sea</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">This paper introduces the applicability of underwater&lt;br&gt;
photogrammetric survey within challenging conditions as the main&lt;br&gt;
tool to enhance and enrich the process of documenting archaeological&lt;br&gt;
excavation through the creation of 4D models. Photogrammetry was&lt;br&gt;
being attempted on underwater archaeological sites at least as early&lt;br&gt;
as the 1970s&amp;rsquo; and today the production of traditional 3D models is&lt;br&gt;
becoming a common practice within the discipline. Photogrammetry&lt;br&gt;
underwater is more often implemented to record exposed underwater&lt;br&gt;
archaeological remains and less so as a dynamic interpretative tool.&amp;nbsp; Therefore, it tends to be applied in bright environments and&lt;br&gt;
when underwater visibility is &amp;gt; 1m, reducing its implementation&lt;br&gt;
on most submerged archaeological sites in more turbid conditions.&lt;br&gt;
Recent years have seen significant development of better digital&lt;br&gt;
photographic sensors and the improvement of optical technology,&lt;br&gt;
ideal for darker environments. Such developments, in tandem with&lt;br&gt;
powerful processing computing systems, have allowed underwater&lt;br&gt;
photogrammetry to be used by this research as a standard recording&lt;br&gt;
and interpretative tool. Using multi-source photogrammetry (5,&lt;br&gt;
GoPro5 Hero Black cameras) this paper presents the accumulation of&lt;br&gt;
daily (4D) underwater surveys carried out in the Early Bronze Age&lt;br&gt;
(3,300 BC) to Late Ottoman (17th Century AD) archaeological site of&lt;br&gt;
Ropotamo in the Bulgarian Black Sea under challenging conditions&lt;br&gt;
(&amp;lt; 0.5m visibility). It proves that underwater photogrammetry can&lt;br&gt;
and should be used as one of the main recording methods even in low&lt;br&gt;
light and poor underwater conditions as a way to better understand&lt;br&gt;
the complexity of the underwater archaeological record.</subfield>
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