Journal article Open Access

4D Modelling of Low Visibility Underwater Archaeological Excavations Using Multi-Source Photogrammetry in the Bulgarian Black Sea

Rodrigo Pacheco-Ruiz; Jonathan Adams; Felix Pedrotti


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{
  "inLanguage": {
    "alternateName": "eng", 
    "@type": "Language", 
    "name": "English"
  }, 
  "description": "This paper introduces the applicability of underwater<br>\nphotogrammetric survey within challenging conditions as the main<br>\ntool to enhance and enrich the process of documenting archaeological<br>\nexcavation through the creation of 4D models. Photogrammetry was<br>\nbeing attempted on underwater archaeological sites at least as early<br>\nas the 1970s&rsquo; and today the production of traditional 3D models is<br>\nbecoming a common practice within the discipline. Photogrammetry<br>\nunderwater is more often implemented to record exposed underwater<br>\narchaeological remains and less so as a dynamic interpretative tool.&nbsp; Therefore, it tends to be applied in bright environments and<br>\nwhen underwater visibility is &gt; 1m, reducing its implementation<br>\non most submerged archaeological sites in more turbid conditions.<br>\nRecent years have seen significant development of better digital<br>\nphotographic sensors and the improvement of optical technology,<br>\nideal for darker environments. Such developments, in tandem with<br>\npowerful processing computing systems, have allowed underwater<br>\nphotogrammetry to be used by this research as a standard recording<br>\nand interpretative tool. Using multi-source photogrammetry (5,<br>\nGoPro5 Hero Black cameras) this paper presents the accumulation of<br>\ndaily (4D) underwater surveys carried out in the Early Bronze Age<br>\n(3,300 BC) to Late Ottoman (17th Century AD) archaeological site of<br>\nRopotamo in the Bulgarian Black Sea under challenging conditions<br>\n(&lt; 0.5m visibility). It proves that underwater photogrammetry can<br>\nand should be used as one of the main recording methods even in low<br>\nlight and poor underwater conditions as a way to better understand<br>\nthe complexity of the underwater archaeological record.", 
  "license": "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode", 
  "creator": [
    {
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Rodrigo Pacheco-Ruiz"
    }, 
    {
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Jonathan Adams"
    }, 
    {
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Felix Pedrotti"
    }
  ], 
  "headline": "4D Modelling of Low Visibility Underwater Archaeological Excavations Using Multi-Source Photogrammetry in the Bulgarian Black Sea", 
  "image": "https://zenodo.org/static/img/logos/zenodo-gradient-round.svg", 
  "datePublished": "2018-03-03", 
  "url": "https://zenodo.org/record/1316478", 
  "version": "10008896", 
  "keywords": [
    "4D modelling", 
    "Black Sea", 
    "maritime archaeology", 
    "underwater photogrammetry", 
    "Bronze Age", 
    "low visibility."
  ], 
  "@context": "https://schema.org/", 
  "identifier": "https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1316478", 
  "@id": "https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1316478", 
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
  "name": "4D Modelling of Low Visibility Underwater Archaeological Excavations Using Multi-Source Photogrammetry in the Bulgarian Black Sea"
}
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