Journal article Open Access

4D Modelling of Low Visibility Underwater Archaeological Excavations Using Multi-Source Photogrammetry in the Bulgarian Black Sea

Rodrigo Pacheco-Ruiz; Jonathan Adams; Felix Pedrotti

JSON Export

  "files": [
      "links": {
        "self": ""
      "checksum": "md5:bf4ac43264c1ca1c01f41e6a6f3cbdef", 
      "bucket": "141dbc9c-108c-4c15-989a-b60cd23e1511", 
      "key": "10008896.pdf", 
      "type": "pdf", 
      "size": 832353
  "owners": [
  "doi": "10.5281/zenodo.1316478", 
  "stats": {
    "version_unique_downloads": 650.0, 
    "unique_views": 602.0, 
    "views": 618.0, 
    "version_views": 618.0, 
    "unique_downloads": 650.0, 
    "version_unique_views": 602.0, 
    "volume": 566832393.0, 
    "version_downloads": 681.0, 
    "downloads": 681.0, 
    "version_volume": 566832393.0
  "links": {
    "doi": "", 
    "conceptdoi": "", 
    "bucket": "", 
    "conceptbadge": "", 
    "html": "", 
    "latest_html": "", 
    "badge": "", 
    "latest": ""
  "conceptdoi": "10.5281/zenodo.1316477", 
  "created": "2018-07-19T17:19:38.432384+00:00", 
  "updated": "2020-01-20T17:20:51.337395+00:00", 
  "conceptrecid": "1316477", 
  "revision": 5, 
  "id": 1316478, 
  "metadata": {
    "access_right_category": "success", 
    "doi": "10.5281/zenodo.1316478", 
    "description": "This paper introduces the applicability of underwater<br>\nphotogrammetric survey within challenging conditions as the main<br>\ntool to enhance and enrich the process of documenting archaeological<br>\nexcavation through the creation of 4D models. Photogrammetry was<br>\nbeing attempted on underwater archaeological sites at least as early<br>\nas the 1970s&rsquo; and today the production of traditional 3D models is<br>\nbecoming a common practice within the discipline. Photogrammetry<br>\nunderwater is more often implemented to record exposed underwater<br>\narchaeological remains and less so as a dynamic interpretative tool.&nbsp; Therefore, it tends to be applied in bright environments and<br>\nwhen underwater visibility is &gt; 1m, reducing its implementation<br>\non most submerged archaeological sites in more turbid conditions.<br>\nRecent years have seen significant development of better digital<br>\nphotographic sensors and the improvement of optical technology,<br>\nideal for darker environments. Such developments, in tandem with<br>\npowerful processing computing systems, have allowed underwater<br>\nphotogrammetry to be used by this research as a standard recording<br>\nand interpretative tool. Using multi-source photogrammetry (5,<br>\nGoPro5 Hero Black cameras) this paper presents the accumulation of<br>\ndaily (4D) underwater surveys carried out in the Early Bronze Age<br>\n(3,300 BC) to Late Ottoman (17th Century AD) archaeological site of<br>\nRopotamo in the Bulgarian Black Sea under challenging conditions<br>\n(&lt; 0.5m visibility). It proves that underwater photogrammetry can<br>\nand should be used as one of the main recording methods even in low<br>\nlight and poor underwater conditions as a way to better understand<br>\nthe complexity of the underwater archaeological record.", 
    "language": "eng", 
    "title": "4D Modelling of Low Visibility Underwater Archaeological Excavations Using Multi-Source Photogrammetry in the Bulgarian Black Sea", 
    "license": {
      "id": "CC-BY-4.0"
    "journal": {
      "volume": "11.0", 
      "issue": "4", 
      "title": "International Journal of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences"
    "relations": {
      "version": [
          "count": 1, 
          "index": 0, 
          "parent": {
            "pid_type": "recid", 
            "pid_value": "1316477"
          "is_last": true, 
          "last_child": {
            "pid_type": "recid", 
            "pid_value": "1316478"
    "version": "10008896", 
    "references": [
      "G. F. Bass, \"Archaeology Under Water,\" in Ancient peoples and places,\nNew York, 1966.", 
      "J. Green, \"Maritime archaeology: a technical handbook,\" 1990.", 
      "M. Rule, \"The Mary Rose: The Excavation and Raising of Henry VIIIs\nFlagship,\" 1982.", 
      "N. Rule, \"Some techniques for cost-effective three-dimensional mapping\nof underwater sites,\" BAR International Series, vol. 598, p. 51, 1995.", 
      "I. Karayotov, \"The Antique and Medieval port at the mouth of the river\nRopotamo,\" Acta TAB, vol. 5, pp. 64\u201366, 1990.", 
      "C. J. Lister, R. N. Hiscott, A. E. Aksu, and P. J. Mudie, \"Compositional\ntrends through the Holocene mud succession of the southwestern Black\nSea shelf: Implications for sedimentary provenance and water-level\nhistory,\" Sedimentary Geology, vol. 316, pp. 13\u201325, 2015.", 
      "G. Lericolais, J. Bourget, I. Popescu, P. Jermannaud, T. Mulder, S. Jorry,\nand N. Panin, \"Late Quaternary deep-sea sedimentation in the western\nBlack Sea: New insights from recent coring and seismic data in the\ndeep basin,\" Global and Planetary Change, vol. 103, no. April 2013,\npp. 232\u2013247, apr 2013.", 
      "H. Br\u00a8uckner, D. Kelterbaum, O. Marunchak, A. Porotov, and A. V\u00a8ott,\n\"The Holocene sea level story since 7500 BP Lessons from the Eastern\nMediterranean, the Black and the Azov Seas,\" Quaternary International,\nvol. 225, no. 2, pp. 160\u2013179, oct 2010.", 
      "V. Yanko-Hombach, A. S. Gilbert, and P. Dolukhanov, \"Controversy\nover the great flood hypotheses in the Black Sea in light of geological,\npaleontological, and archaeological evidence,\" Quaternary International,\nvol. 167-168, pp. 91\u2013113, jun 2007.\n[10] I. Popescu, G. Lericolais, N. Panin, A. Normand, C. Dinu, and E. Le\nDrezen, \"The Danube submarine canyon (Black Sea): morphology and\nsedimentary processes,\" Marine Geology, vol. 206, no. 1-4, pp. 249\u2013265,\nmay 2004.\n[11] A. E. Aksu, H. Gillespie, and P. J. Mudie, \"Dino flagellate cysts\n, freshwater algae and fungal spores as salinity indicators in Late\nQuaternary cores from Marmara and Black seas,\" vol. 190, 2002.\n[12] A. E. Aksu, R. N. Hiscott, and D. Ya, \"Oscillating Quaternary water\nlevels of the Marmara Sea and vigorous outflow into the Aegean Sea\nfrom the Marmara Sea Black Sea drainage corridor,\" vol. 153, pp.\n275\u2013302, 1999.\n[13] W. B. F. Ryan, W. C. Pitman, C. Major, K. Shimkus, V. Moskalenko,\nG. A. Jones, P. Dimitrov, N. Goriir, M. Saking, and H. Yiice, \"An abrupt\ndrowning of the Black Sea shelf,\" vol. 138, pp. 119\u2013126, 1997.\n[14] J. McCarthy and J. Benjamin, \"Multi-image Photogrammetry for\nUnderwater Archaeological Site Recording: An Accessible, Diver-Based\nApproach,\" Journal of Maritime Archaeology, mar 2014.\n[15] C. Beltrame and E. Costa, \"3D survey and modelling of shipwrecks in\ndifferent underwater environments,\" Journal of Cultural Heritage, 2017.\n[16] O. Barkai and Y. Kahanov, \"The Tantura F Shipwreck, Israel,\"\nInternational Journal of Nautical Archaeology, vol. 36, no. 1, p. 21,\n2007.\n[17] M. Eliyahu, O. Barkai, Y. Goren, N. Eliaz, Y. Kahanov, and\nD. Ashkenazi, \"The iron anchors from the Tantura F shipwreck:\ntypological and metallurgical analyses,\" Journal of Archaeological\nScience, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 233\u2013245, 2011.\n[18] N. Rule, \"The Direct Survey Method (DSM) OF Underwater Survey,\nAnd Its Application Underwater,\" International Journal of Nautical\nArchaeology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 157\u2013162, 1989."
    "keywords": [
      "4D modelling", 
      "Black Sea", 
      "maritime archaeology", 
      "underwater photogrammetry", 
      "Bronze Age", 
      "low visibility."
    "publication_date": "2018-03-03", 
    "creators": [
        "name": "Rodrigo Pacheco-Ruiz"
        "name": "Jonathan Adams"
        "name": "Felix Pedrotti"
    "access_right": "open", 
    "resource_type": {
      "subtype": "article", 
      "type": "publication", 
      "title": "Journal article"
    "related_identifiers": [
        "scheme": "doi", 
        "identifier": "10.5281/zenodo.1316477", 
        "relation": "isVersionOf"
All versions This version
Views 618618
Downloads 681681
Data volume 566.8 MB566.8 MB
Unique views 602602
Unique downloads 650650


Cite as