Journal article Open Access

4D Modelling of Low Visibility Underwater Archaeological Excavations Using Multi-Source Photogrammetry in the Bulgarian Black Sea

Rodrigo Pacheco-Ruiz; Jonathan Adams; Felix Pedrotti


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        <foaf:name>Rodrigo Pacheco-Ruiz</foaf:name>
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        <foaf:name>Jonathan Adams</foaf:name>
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        <foaf:name>Felix Pedrotti</foaf:name>
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    <dct:title>4D Modelling of Low Visibility Underwater Archaeological Excavations Using Multi-Source Photogrammetry in the Bulgarian Black Sea</dct:title>
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    <dct:issued rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#gYear">2018</dct:issued>
    <dcat:keyword>4D modelling</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>Black Sea</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>maritime archaeology</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>underwater photogrammetry</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>Bronze Age</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>low visibility.</dcat:keyword>
    <dct:issued rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#date">2018-03-03</dct:issued>
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    <dct:description>This paper introduces the applicability of underwater&lt;br&gt; photogrammetric survey within challenging conditions as the main&lt;br&gt; tool to enhance and enrich the process of documenting archaeological&lt;br&gt; excavation through the creation of 4D models. Photogrammetry was&lt;br&gt; being attempted on underwater archaeological sites at least as early&lt;br&gt; as the 1970s&amp;rsquo; and today the production of traditional 3D models is&lt;br&gt; becoming a common practice within the discipline. Photogrammetry&lt;br&gt; underwater is more often implemented to record exposed underwater&lt;br&gt; archaeological remains and less so as a dynamic interpretative tool.&amp;nbsp; Therefore, it tends to be applied in bright environments and&lt;br&gt; when underwater visibility is &amp;gt; 1m, reducing its implementation&lt;br&gt; on most submerged archaeological sites in more turbid conditions.&lt;br&gt; Recent years have seen significant development of better digital&lt;br&gt; photographic sensors and the improvement of optical technology,&lt;br&gt; ideal for darker environments. Such developments, in tandem with&lt;br&gt; powerful processing computing systems, have allowed underwater&lt;br&gt; photogrammetry to be used by this research as a standard recording&lt;br&gt; and interpretative tool. Using multi-source photogrammetry (5,&lt;br&gt; GoPro5 Hero Black cameras) this paper presents the accumulation of&lt;br&gt; daily (4D) underwater surveys carried out in the Early Bronze Age&lt;br&gt; (3,300 BC) to Late Ottoman (17th Century AD) archaeological site of&lt;br&gt; Ropotamo in the Bulgarian Black Sea under challenging conditions&lt;br&gt; (&amp;lt; 0.5m visibility). It proves that underwater photogrammetry can&lt;br&gt; and should be used as one of the main recording methods even in low&lt;br&gt; light and poor underwater conditions as a way to better understand&lt;br&gt; the complexity of the underwater archaeological record.</dct:description>
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