Journal article Open Access
Ergeshov, Atadjan; Punga, Victor; Rusakova, Larisa; Yakimova, Marina; Izmailova, Tamara
Background: The comparative assessment of the epidemiological indices and challenging issues of the tuberculosis control in the Russian Federation.
Material and methods: In the study were used the analytical annual report of the statistical indices registered and the electronic resources of the Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics of the Russian Ministry of Health.
Results: The tuberculosis epidemiological situation in the Russian Federation is continuously improving. The achieved indices in disease control were 71.3% of the population annually screened and the rate of 51.5% patients with microbiological sputum conversion from positive to negative. During the period from 2000 till 2017, the incidence decreased from 90.4 to 48.3 per 100 000 population, the incidence in children aged between 0 and 14 years old decreased from 19.1 in 2001 to 9.7 in 2017 and in children aged between 15 and 17 reduced from 40.5 (the highest level) in 2005 till 21.6 in 2017 (the lowest level 16.6 in 1992). One of the contributing factors with an important impact on the epidemiological state represents the HIV-infection, the incidence of which went up from 6.5% in 2009 to 20.9% in 2017. In 2017, the effectiveness of treatment based on bacterial conversion was reported in 70.7% of new cases, and closure of cavitary lesions was reported in 62.9% of cases.
Conclusions: Russia made certain progress in tuberculosis control, however, the vast territory, its heterogeneity, including climatic and social economic differences, affect the epidemiological situation. Big efforts were performed for solving the problems associated with the infection control. The epidemiological data determined an increasing rate of the MDR-TB and TB/HIV co-infected patients, which required the development of the new approaches in tuberculosis control.