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Розвиток неолітичних культур на території України: подолання запрограмованості на певний тип ландшафту / The development of Neolithic cultures on the territory of Ukraine: overcoming determination of a certain type of landscape

Manko Valerij

Editor(s)
Terpylovskyi Rostyslav; Shydlovskyi Pavlo

У статті розглядаються стратегії використання ландшафтів носіями археологічних культур мезоліту та не-

оліту України. Доводиться, що археологічні культури мезоліту пов’язані з певним типом ландшафту. Натомість,

стратегія носіїв археологічних культур неоліту пов’язана з подоланням запрограмованості на використання

одного типу ландшафту, з міграційною активністю, спрямованою на території, які відносилися до степової,

лісостепової та лісової зон. Подібна стратегічна спрямованість була властивою для більшості археологічних

культур неоліту, що призводило до створення конкурентного середовища та розселення на одних і тих же

територіях. Така міграційно-колонізаторська активність сприяла поширенню неолітичних інновацій серед ав-

тохтонного населення, що колонізувалося. Результатом цього процесу стала поява дніпро-донецької культур-

но-історичної області неоліту України.

 

The analysis of the Mesolithic archaeological cultures shows us the tough correlation between a specific

type of material culture and landscape. Thrre are archaeological cultures that are rigidly tied to the Mountain

Crimea (Murzakkobien, Shpankobien), that are connected with steppe landscape (Zymivnykien) and forest

zone (Pisochnorivian). The use of different kinds of landskapes has contributed, on the one hand, maximum

adaptation of carriers of archaeological cultures to the environment, and the other – creating a closed society that

demonstrated a complete lack of contact with neighbors who hold other landscape niches. Even within a single

environment landscape contacts between different groups are absent. For example, carriers of Postswiderian and

Postarengsburgian often occupied a same territory. Thus, there are no traces of enrichment industries. The landscape

shaped not only the kind of economic system, but the original system of relationship to the world, when just being

neighbors is not taken into account.

Neolithic – the era of revolution, not only and not so much in the way of obtaining resources as in human

relations. In the Neolithic creation of huge “cultural and historical region” (CHR) takes place, within which innovative

technologies spread. This process made people, who previously just did not notice each other to interact. CHR

establishment became the cause of large-scale migrations, during which certain groups preprogrammed on the use

of certain types of landscapes, started distant migrations, which led to a radical change in migrants’ lifestyle.

The decreasing of landscape role in providing of new economic strategies and consciousness revolution

correlate, one does not exist without the other.

Distribution of Neolithic lifestyle in Ukraine due to migration of peoples and diffusion of Kukrek-type, Grebeniki-

type and Tash-Ayir-type traditions.

The migration of Kukrek-type population began long before they started their own development of reproduction

type economy. If in the middle of Preboreal Kukrekian known only in the foothills of the Crimea, in early Boreal

we see advancements of Kukrek population on a frontier of steppe and forest-steppe zones (Dobrianka 1 2, 3) . In

Atlantykum the promotion of Kukrek-type population to the forest-steppe (Donetsk culture at Seversky Donets)

takes place, and then to the forest zone (Lazarivka, Krushnyky and others). So Kukrek population at the beginning

of VI millennium BC mastered all types of landscapes of Ukraine, became the basis for the formation of the Dnieper-

Donets cultural historical region.

Grebenyki-type population (carriers of Grebenyki and Matviiv Kurgan Cultures) appearing in the steppe zone

in Early Atlantykum, remained for some time in its niche in steppe landscape. However, in the second quarter of

VII millennium BC promotion of Matviiv Kurgan population to the forest-steppe takes place (Tuba 5),

in the end

of VII - beginning of VI millennium BC process of moving people to the north became global. By this time the early

Bug-Dniester sites and Starobelsk-type complexes in eastern Ukraine appeared. By the end of VI millennium BC

Grebenyki-type population reaches the boundary of the forest and steppe zones (Romankiv 1).

Tash-Ayir culture originating from the mountain area of Crimea. But in the early VI millennium BC we observe

a splash of Tash-Ayir-type population in the steppe zone, which led to the appearance of Azov-Dnieper Culture. In

quarters 2-3 VI millennium BC we see the migration of Azov-Dnieper population to the Southern Bug (Gard). At the

end of VI millennium BC we see Tash-Ayir-type population on the frontier of the forest zone (Nikolskay Slobidka).

Thus, the development of Ukrainian Neolithic associated with overcoming the landscape limitations by certain

carriers of archaeological cultures. The process of overcoming such limitations programmed the appearance of CHR

in Eastern Europe, in which Neolithic lifestyle developed.

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