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Normalized Damage from Major Tornadoes in the United States: 1890 1999

Brooks, Harold E.; Doswell, Charles A.; Iii, Charles A. Doswell


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  <dc:creator>Brooks, Harold E.</dc:creator>
  <dc:creator>Doswell, Charles A.</dc:creator>
  <dc:creator>Iii, Charles A. Doswell</dc:creator>
  <dc:date>2001-02-01</dc:date>
  <dc:description>Historical records of damage from major tornadoes in the United States are taken and adjusted for inflation and wealth. Such adjustments provide a more reliable method to compare losses over time in the context of significant societal change. From 1890 to 1999, the costliest tornado on the record, adjusted for inflation, is the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City tornado, with an adjusted $963 million in damage (constant 1997 dollars). Including an adjustment for growth in wealth, on the other hand, clearly shows the 27 May 1896 Saint Louis-East Saint Louis tornado to be the costliest on record. An extremely conservative adjustment for the 1896 tornado gives a value of $2.2 billion. A more realistic adjustment yields a figure of $2.9 billion. A comparison of the ratio of deaths to wealth-adjusted damage shows a clear break in 1953, at the beginning of the watch/warning/awareness program of the National Weather Service.</dc:description>
  <dc:identifier>https://zenodo.org/record/1234647</dc:identifier>
  <dc:identifier>10.1175/1520-0434(2001)016&lt;0168:ndfmti&gt;2.0.co;2</dc:identifier>
  <dc:identifier>oai:zenodo.org:1234647</dc:identifier>
  <dc:rights>info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess</dc:rights>
  <dc:rights>https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/legalcode</dc:rights>
  <dc:title>Normalized Damage from Major Tornadoes in the United States: 1890 1999</dc:title>
  <dc:type>info:eu-repo/semantics/article</dc:type>
  <dc:type>publication-article</dc:type>
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