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Normalized Damage from Major Tornadoes in the United States: 1890 1999

Brooks, Harold E.; Doswell, Charles A.; Iii, Charles A. Doswell


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{
  "description": "Historical records of damage from major tornadoes in the United States are taken and adjusted for inflation and wealth. Such adjustments provide a more reliable method to compare losses over time in the context of significant societal change. From 1890 to 1999, the costliest tornado on the record, adjusted for inflation, is the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City tornado, with an adjusted $963 million in damage (constant 1997 dollars). Including an adjustment for growth in wealth, on the other hand, clearly shows the 27 May 1896 Saint Louis-East Saint Louis tornado to be the costliest on record. An extremely conservative adjustment for the 1896 tornado gives a value of $2.2 billion. A more realistic adjustment yields a figure of $2.9 billion. A comparison of the ratio of deaths to wealth-adjusted damage shows a clear break in 1953, at the beginning of the watch/warning/awareness program of the National Weather Service.", 
  "license": "https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/legalcode", 
  "creator": [
    {
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Brooks, Harold E."
    }, 
    {
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Doswell, Charles A."
    }, 
    {
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Iii, Charles A. Doswell"
    }
  ], 
  "headline": "Normalized Damage from Major Tornadoes in the United States: 1890 1999", 
  "image": "https://zenodo.org/static/img/logos/zenodo-gradient-round.svg", 
  "datePublished": "2001-02-01", 
  "url": "https://zenodo.org/record/1234647", 
  "@context": "https://schema.org/", 
  "identifier": "https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2001)016<0168:ndfmti>2.0.co;2", 
  "@id": "https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2001)016<0168:ndfmti>2.0.co;2", 
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
  "name": "Normalized Damage from Major Tornadoes in the United States: 1890 1999"
}
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