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Normalized Damage from Major Tornadoes in the United States: 1890 1999

Brooks, Harold E.; Doswell, Charles A.; Iii, Charles A. Doswell


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  <identifier identifierType="URL">https://zenodo.org/record/1234647</identifier>
  <creators>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Brooks, Harold E.</creatorName>
      <givenName>Harold E.</givenName>
      <familyName>Brooks</familyName>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Doswell, Charles A.</creatorName>
      <givenName>Charles A.</givenName>
      <familyName>Doswell</familyName>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Iii, Charles A. Doswell</creatorName>
      <givenName>Charles A. Doswell</givenName>
      <familyName>Iii</familyName>
    </creator>
  </creators>
  <titles>
    <title>Normalized Damage from Major Tornadoes in the United States: 1890 1999</title>
  </titles>
  <publisher>Zenodo</publisher>
  <publicationYear>2001</publicationYear>
  <dates>
    <date dateType="Issued">2001-02-01</date>
  </dates>
  <resourceType resourceTypeGeneral="Text">Journal article</resourceType>
  <alternateIdentifiers>
    <alternateIdentifier alternateIdentifierType="url">https://zenodo.org/record/1234647</alternateIdentifier>
  </alternateIdentifiers>
  <relatedIdentifiers>
    <relatedIdentifier relatedIdentifierType="DOI" relationType="IsIdenticalTo">10.1175/1520-0434(2001)016&lt;0168:ndfmti&gt;2.0.co;2</relatedIdentifier>
  </relatedIdentifiers>
  <rightsList>
    <rights rightsURI="https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/legalcode">Creative Commons Zero v1.0 Universal</rights>
    <rights rightsURI="info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess">Open Access</rights>
  </rightsList>
  <descriptions>
    <description descriptionType="Abstract">Historical records of damage from major tornadoes in the United States are taken and adjusted for inflation and wealth. Such adjustments provide a more reliable method to compare losses over time in the context of significant societal change. From 1890 to 1999, the costliest tornado on the record, adjusted for inflation, is the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City tornado, with an adjusted $963 million in damage (constant 1997 dollars). Including an adjustment for growth in wealth, on the other hand, clearly shows the 27 May 1896 Saint Louis-East Saint Louis tornado to be the costliest on record. An extremely conservative adjustment for the 1896 tornado gives a value of $2.2 billion. A more realistic adjustment yields a figure of $2.9 billion. A comparison of the ratio of deaths to wealth-adjusted damage shows a clear break in 1953, at the beginning of the watch/warning/awareness program of the National Weather Service.</description>
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