Journal article Open Access

Normalized Damage from Major Tornadoes in the United States: 1890 1999

Brooks, Harold E.; Doswell, Charles A.; Iii, Charles A. Doswell

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  "DOI": "10.1175/1520-0434(2001)016<0168:ndfmti>;2", 
  "author": [
      "family": "Brooks, Harold E."
      "family": "Doswell, Charles A."
      "family": "Iii, Charles A. Doswell"
  "issued": {
    "date-parts": [
  "abstract": "Historical records of damage from major tornadoes in the United States are taken and adjusted for inflation and wealth. Such adjustments provide a more reliable method to compare losses over time in the context of significant societal change. From 1890 to 1999, the costliest tornado on the record, adjusted for inflation, is the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City tornado, with an adjusted $963 million in damage (constant 1997 dollars). Including an adjustment for growth in wealth, on the other hand, clearly shows the 27 May 1896 Saint Louis-East Saint Louis tornado to be the costliest on record. An extremely conservative adjustment for the 1896 tornado gives a value of $2.2 billion. A more realistic adjustment yields a figure of $2.9 billion. A comparison of the ratio of deaths to wealth-adjusted damage shows a clear break in 1953, at the beginning of the watch/warning/awareness program of the National Weather Service.", 
  "title": "Normalized Damage from Major Tornadoes in the United States: 1890 1999", 
  "type": "article-journal", 
  "id": "1234647"
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