Journal article Open Access

Personality Trait Structure as a Human Universal

McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T. Jr

JSON-LD ( Export

  "description": "Patterns of covariation among personality traits in English-speaking populations can be summarized by the five-factor model (FFM). To assess the cross-cultural generalizability of the FFM, data from studies using 6 translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P.T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) were compared with the American factor structure. German, Portuguese, Hebrew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese samples (N = 7,134) showed similar structures after varimax rotation of 5 factors. When targeted rotations were used, the American factor structure was closely reproduced, even at the level of secondary loadings. Because the samples studied represented highly diverse cultures with languages from 5 distinct language families, these data strongly suggest that personality trait structure is universal.", 
  "license": "", 
  "creator": [
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "McCrae, Robert R."
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Costa, Paul T. Jr"
  "headline": "Personality Trait Structure as a Human Universal", 
  "image": "", 
  "datePublished": "1997-06-01", 
  "url": "", 
  "@context": "", 
  "identifier": "", 
  "@id": "", 
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
  "name": "Personality Trait Structure as a Human Universal"
Views 1,458
Downloads 1,758
Data volume 1.6 GB
Unique views 1,361
Unique downloads 1,712


Cite as