Journal article Open Access

Personality Trait Structure as a Human Universal

McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T. Jr

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  "DOI": "10.1037/0003-066x.52.5.509", 
  "author": [
      "family": "McCrae, Robert R."
      "family": "Costa, Paul T. Jr"
  "issued": {
    "date-parts": [
  "abstract": "Patterns of covariation among personality traits in English-speaking populations can be summarized by the five-factor model (FFM). To assess the cross-cultural generalizability of the FFM, data from studies using 6 translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P.T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) were compared with the American factor structure. German, Portuguese, Hebrew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese samples (N = 7,134) showed similar structures after varimax rotation of 5 factors. When targeted rotations were used, the American factor structure was closely reproduced, even at the level of secondary loadings. Because the samples studied represented highly diverse cultures with languages from 5 distinct language families, these data strongly suggest that personality trait structure is universal.", 
  "title": "Personality Trait Structure as a Human Universal", 
  "type": "article-journal", 
  "id": "1231466"
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