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The Ecology of Extinctions in Kelp Forest Communities

Estes, James A.; Duggins, David O.; Rathbun, Galen B.


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{
  "description": "We recognize three levels of extinction\u2013global, local, and ecological \u2013 and provide examples of each. The protection and recovery of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) has provided abundant evidence of the consequences of their local extinction from kelp forest communities in the North Pacifc Ocean. These consequences include release of benthic invertebrate populations from limitation by predation; deforestation of kelp beds due to increased grazing by herbivorous sea urchins, one of the otter's main prey; and various cascading effects resulting from the biological and physical importance of kelp in coastal ecosystems. These interactions probably were important agents of selection for certain species.\n\nTwo other examples are discussed: Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas), a case of global extinction, and spiny lobsters, a possible case of ecological extinction. We speculate that grazing by sea cows was an important disturbance to surface\u2010canopy\u2010forming kelps and other algae in the littoral zones, but also point out that any such interactions probably acted in concert with physical disturbances by ocean waves. The ecological and evolutionary importance of sea cow grazing probably will remain a matter of speculation and conjecture because the species is globally extinct.\n\nPredation by spiny lobsters limits a variety of littoral and sublittoral invertebrate populations, particularly mollusks In one remarkable example, the reduction or local extinction of spiny lobsters enabled predutory whelks to increase in size and abundance, ultimately resulting in a predutor\u2010prey role reversal. From these and other case studies we can clued that (1) the extinction of consumers may have brad and sometimes unexpected influences on kelp forest ecosystems; (2) direct or indirect interactions with now\u2010extinct species probably exerted important selective influences on many extant forms; (3) such ecological and evolutionary influences are best understood where local or ecological extinctions, followed by recoveries, have provided comparisons in space or time; and (4) because of various ecological and behavioral barriers, local extinctions and their ecological consequences may not be simply reversed by protecting or reintroducing depleted or locally extinct species.\nAbstract\n\nReconocemos tres niveles de extinci\u00f3n: global, local y ecol\u00f3gica y proporcionamos ejemplos de cada una.\n\nLa protecci\u00f3n y recuperaci\u00f3n de nuh.ias marinas (Enhydra lutris) ha prove\u00eddo evidencia abundante sobre las consecuencias de su extinci\u00f3n local en comunidades de algas marinas \u2013 bosques de kelp \u2013 en el norte del Oc\u00e9ano Pac\u00edfico.\n\nEstas consecuencias incluyen la liberaci\u00f3n de poblaciones de invertebrados (bent\u00f3nicos) de su limitaci\u00f3n por la caza por parte de la nutria marina; la deforestaci\u00f3n de \u00e1reas con kelp debido al aumento del pastoreo por los pepinos de mar herb\u00edvoros una de las principales presas de la nutria marina; y varios efectos en \"cascada.\" Estas interacciones han sido, probablemente, agentes importantes de selecci\u00f3n para ciertas especies.\n\nDiscutimos dos ejemplos m\u00e1s: la vaca marina de Steller (Hydrodamalis gigas), que representa un caso de extinci\u00f3n global, y la langosta espinozcr, que posiblemente representa un caso de extinci\u00f3n ecol\u00f3gica.\n\nEspeculamos que el pastoreo de las vacas marinas ha perturbado de manera importante al dose, superficial de los bosques de kelp y a otras alga en las \u00e1reas litorales, pero asimismo se\u00f1alamos que tales interacciones actuaron probablemente en conjunto a disturbios f\u00edsicos causados por el oleaje marino.\n\nLa importancia ecol\u00f3gica y evolutiva del pastoreo de las uacas marinas seguir\u00e1 siendo, probablemente: un tema deespeculaci\u00f3n y conjetura, dado que dicha especie est\u00e1 extinta a nivel global.\n\nLa predaci\u00f3n de langostas espinozas limita a una variedad de poblaciones de invertebrados, litorales y sublitorales, particulamzente a moluscos.\n\nEn un ejemplo admirable, la reducci\u00f3n o extinci\u00f3n local de langostas ha permitido a las conchas univalvas espirales (whelks) incrementar su tama\u00f1o y abundancia, dando por resultado a una inverse\u00f3n del rol predador\u2010presa.\n\nEn base a \u00e9stos y ohos estudios, podemos concluir que (1) La extinci\u00f3n de consumidores puede tener vastas y, algunas veces, inesperadas influencias en ecosistemas de bosques de algas marinas (kelp). (2) Probablemente, interacciones directas o indirectas con especies hoy en d\u00eda extintas ejercieron influencias selectivas sobre muchas formas existentes. (3) Estas influencias ecol\u00f3gicas y evolutivas se entienden mejor en aquellos casos donde extinciones locales o ecol\u00f3gicas, seguidas de una recuperaci\u00f3n, han proporeionado comparaciones en tiempo o en espacio. (4) Debido a numerosas barreras ecol\u00f3gicas y conductuales, las extinciones locales y sus consecuencias ecol\u00f3gicas no pueden ser invertidas simplemente protegiendo o re\u2010introduciendo especies disminu\u00eddus o extintas localmente.", 
  "license": "https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/legalcode", 
  "creator": [
    {
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Estes, James A."
    }, 
    {
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Duggins, David O."
    }, 
    {
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Rathbun, Galen B."
    }
  ], 
  "headline": "The Ecology of Extinctions in Kelp Forest Communities", 
  "image": "https://zenodo.org/static/img/logos/zenodo-gradient-round.svg", 
  "datePublished": "1989-09-01", 
  "url": "https://zenodo.org/record/1230655", 
  "@context": "https://schema.org/", 
  "identifier": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.1989.tb00085.x", 
  "@id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.1989.tb00085.x", 
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
  "name": "The Ecology of Extinctions in Kelp Forest Communities"
}
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