Poster Open Access

Should you restrict the hand of able-bodied participants? (Abstract title: Influence of a transradial amputation on neuromuscular control of forearm muscles)

Kristoffersen, Morten Bak; Franzke, Andreas; Murgia, Alessio; Bongers, Raoul; van der Sluis, Corry


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    <subfield code="a">Should you restrict the hand of able-bodied participants? (Abstract title: Influence of a transradial amputation on neuromuscular control of forearm muscles)</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;ABSTRACT&lt;br&gt;
Following an upper-limb amputation the muscles and&lt;br&gt;
tendons in the amputation stump are often rearranged by a&lt;br&gt;
surgical procedure. One of the purposes of this rearrangement&lt;br&gt;
is to shape the stump as to optimally support the prosthesis&lt;br&gt;
socket, and to create good control sites for a myoelectric&lt;br&gt;
prosthesis using direct control. For the transradial level the&lt;br&gt;
main wrist flexors and extensors are used for the latter&lt;br&gt;
purpose and the remaining muscles are mainly used for&lt;br&gt;
reshaping the stump. This is an interesting phenomenon from&lt;br&gt;
a motor control perspective and questions arise to how the&lt;br&gt;
control strategy of the neuromotor system changes after&lt;br&gt;
amputation when muscles and other tissues are rearranged&lt;br&gt;
and subsequently degenerate. Moreover, the feedback loop is&lt;br&gt;
heavily altered due to absence of a moving limb. This also&lt;br&gt;
appears to have an effect on the electromyogram (EMG) as&lt;br&gt;
demonstrated in several studies in which motion intent was&lt;br&gt;
classified using features of the EMG measured at the forearm.&lt;br&gt;
When comparing classification accuracy between ablebodied&lt;br&gt;
subjects and amputee subjects the accuracy was lower&lt;br&gt;
for the amputees. However, the relative accuracy between&lt;br&gt;
able-bodied participants and amputees is fairly consistent&lt;br&gt;
among a range of classification algorithms. Therefore, many&lt;br&gt;
studies recruit able-bodied subjects and extrapolate their&lt;br&gt;
results to the amputee population.&lt;br&gt;
In this study we aim to investigate how transradial&lt;br&gt;
amputation influences the EMG in an effort to improve the&lt;br&gt;
transferability of results from able-bodied participants to&lt;br&gt;
amputee users. In our study protocol, we simultaneously&lt;br&gt;
measure the EMG at the forearm of both the unaffected and&lt;br&gt;
the affected side of transradial amputees. Participants will&lt;br&gt;
perform bimanual (phantom) movements in two different&lt;br&gt;
conditions. In the &amp;lsquo;restricted-hand condition&amp;rsquo;, the hand of the&lt;br&gt;
able side is restricted by a brace so the movement&lt;br&gt;
contractions become isometric. In the &amp;lsquo;free-hand condition&amp;rsquo;,&lt;br&gt;
the hand of the able side is not restricted. The purpose of&lt;br&gt;
restricting the able hand is to simulate the loss of hand&lt;br&gt;
movements while contracting wrist muscles and determine&lt;br&gt;
how this influences the EMG. We hypothesize that the EMG&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;measured at the able-side in the &amp;lsquo;restricted-hand condition&amp;rsquo; is&lt;br&gt;
more similar to the EMG at the affected side than it is in the&lt;br&gt;
&amp;lsquo;free-hand condition&amp;rsquo;. To quantify this, we use a patternrecognition&lt;br&gt;
algorithm to classify the motion intent from both&lt;br&gt;
sides and analyse the resulting classification clusters using&lt;br&gt;
the separability index, repeatability index and the semiprincipal&lt;br&gt;
axes as described in the literature.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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